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Chem 110 History / Concepts for Final.docx

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McGill University
CHEM 110
Ashok Kakkar

Important Discoveries - Alfred Wener(1913) – Theory of Coordination - Paracelsus – Development of iatochemistry(drugs/remedies) - Robert Boyle - proposed practical definition of element - Lavoisier – Provided first table of chemical elements - Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac – Famous for work on gas behavior - Avogadro – “invented” the molecule: first to recognize water H O and ammonia as NH ; 2 3 Avogadro’s constant - Andrew Marie Ampere – Proposed equal volume of gases contain equal number of particles; Ampere’s hypothesis - Stanislao Cannizzaro - Set origin of Avogadro’s hypothesis straight o Enabled correct assignment of relative atomic/molecular weights - Dmtriy Ivanovich Mendeleev – Wrote first period table of elements. He even left blanks in prediction of elements yet to be discovered - J.J. Thomson – Reported that “cathode rays” were negatively charged particles about 1000 times lighter than a hydrogen atom o Proposed plum-pudding model - Becquerel – Reported that uranium compounds emit radiation that darkens the photographic plate - Marie & Pierre Curie - Establish that “radioactivity” is found in other elements & isolated 2 new highly radioactive elements – Polonium & Radium - Ernest Rutherford – Named radiation as alpha particles o Instructed Geiger and Marsden to aim beam of alpha particles at gold foil o Demonstrated positive charge of atom is found in a tiny nucleus  Gave birth to planetary model of atom - Max Planck – Proposed that energy is absorbed or emitted only in discrete “packets” or quanta of energy; E = hv - Einstein – Thought of a wave of light as “particles of light”; E=hv. – Nobel Prize o Wave-particle duality first recognized for “particles of light”  Now considered fundamental property of “matter” - Balmer - found equation that describes experimentally observed H emission spectra: “Balmer Series” - Bohr – Bohr Atom model: e- revolves around nucleus in circular orbits. Orbits have discrete angular momentum - Sir Joseph Lockyer – Discovered Helium on Earth - DeBroglie – Everything behaves as a particle and a wave simultaneously - Max von Laue- Used diffraction to show that x-rays are waves of size comparable to atomic size. Also proved crystals are made of ordered atoms - Davisson and Germer –Shot x-rays and electrons on a nickel. X-ray diffraction gave off EM waves. Electron diffraction look
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