Study Guides (248,317)
Canada (121,484)
Chemistry (198)
CHEM 110 (24)
Final

FINAL REVIEW.doc

5 Pages
107 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 110
Professor
Ariel Fenster
Semester
Fall

Description
Chem 110 Alanna Houston FINAL REVIEW - E = hf - KE elex=ctron = 1/2msubeu^2 = hf-hfo = hv-psi - M,s,kg,j - For absorption, ni is less than nf - For emission, ni is greater than nf - Rsubn = n^2asubo - Know the energy corresponding to photon energy: delta e = 2.179 FINISH - Memorize the bohr model for all h like species - Ionization energy equation - DeBroglie equation predicts that matter should have waves equation - Uncertainty principle o H is planck’s constant - Know the quantum numbers o N is the principal quantum number – greater than zero o L is the angular momentum quantum number (0 to n-1) o L gives which subshell (0- s etc.) o Ml magnetic quantum number (2l + 1) – number of electrons in the orbital o Each l number gets two electrons o Ms spin quantum number +1/2 or –1/2For paired electrons in an orbital, magnetic fields cancel o Spin up: south is upwards but in spin down, the north is on top o For unpaired single electrons in an orbital, there is a net magnetic field (paramagnetic) - Electrons occupy orbitals in a way that minimizes the energy of the atom - No two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers (Pauli Exclusion Principle – know definition of this) - Memorize diagonal drawing - Electrons will occupy orbitals of the same energy single (unpaired) the single electron in these degenerate (same energy) orbitals will have the same spin state (Hund’s Rule) - Once orbitals of the same energy are filled singly, additional electrons can be added with the opposite spin - We choose to write lower n to the left instead of filling order because ionized electrons are usually pulled from the orbital with the higher n (which may not be the last one filled as in this case) - The exceptions: for extra stability for filled and half-filled d orbitals - In Cr, 5 in 3d FINISH - Metals lose electrons to get to noble gas - Non-metals tend to gain electrons to get to noble gas and therefore negative ions - Valence electrons shield each other to a much smaller ectent - Putting in valence electrons so S ~ constant while z increases therefore Zeff increases and radius decreases - S block and p block radius increases down and increases across - Cations are smaller than the parent atoms Chem 110 Alanna Houston - Cations lose electrons but z stays the same - For isoelectronic cations, the more positive charge, the smaller the ionic radius (z is different) ** They have the same number of electrons - Anions are larger than the parent atoms - Anions gain electrons but z stays constant - For isoelectronic ions…the more negative charge, the larger the ionic radius - Ionization energy: energy required to strip an electron from a gaseous state atom (or ion) o Not spontaneous…requires energy input o One right before the big jump is the one o Opposite trends to size - Electron Affinity is the energy change when an electron is added to a gaseous state atom (or ion) o Becomes less negative (lower affinity) down a group o NEGATIVE – the larger the affinity, the larger the negative value o Look at the trends diagram summary - Determine electron configuration to see if there are unpaired electrons (ADD PROBLEMS) NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY - Look at half life and emission stuff (alpha, beta, gamma) - Bottom is atomic number – number of protons - Top is the mass number, the number of protons and neutrons - HALF LIFE - do practice problems - Carbon 14 dating o Half life = 5370 years - Ln(Nt/No) = -k x t - K = 0.693/tsub(1/2) - Carbon cycle: Living system: C14/C12 is constant. Dead system: C14/C12 is decreasing - Atmosphere: look at diagram - E = mc^2 - 1 amu = 1.6606x10^-24 g (MAKE SURE YOU CONVERT THIS TO KG) - 1 amu = 1.4924 x 10^-10 Joules - 1 amu = 931.5 MeV - Number you get for deltaE is per nucleon - Multiply by Na to get it per mol / nucleus - Divide by molecular weight to get it per gram - Go over fission and fusion theory and reactors - Know Lewis structures - Formal charge is the number of valence electrons from all atoms minus the number of lone pair electrons minus half the number of bonding electrons - Least electronegative element is usually in the centre - Carbon atoms are always central atoms - Symmetrical structures are usually preferred - Best resonance structure has the smallest formal charges - VSEPR theory KNOW Chem 110 Alanna Houston - Lp-lp>lp-bp>bp-bp - For geometrical considerations, a multiple bond can be treated as if it were a single bond - Polarity: polar molecules have a net dipole moment - Non-polar molecules have no net dipole moment - Valence Bond Theory: o S-s overlap o S-p overlap o P-p overlap o Single bonds are always sigma o Double bonds are one sigma and one pi o Triple bonds are one sigma and two pi o Always come head to head overlap s-s and s-p - Hybridization: o If there are two electron pairs, it is linear and has sp hybridization o If there are three electron pairs, it is Trigonal planar and has sp2 hybridization o If there are four electron pairs, it is tetrahedral and has sp3 hybridization o If there are five electron pairs, it has Trigonal bipyramidal geometry and sp3d hybridization o If there are six electron pairs, it has octahedral geometry and has sp3d2 hybridization o Multiple bonds are considered as single bonds o Each lone pair is also an ‘arm’ - MO Theory: o Energy level diagrams o Derive a set of molecular orbitals o Arrange the molecula
More Less

Related notes for CHEM 110

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit