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CHEM 110
Ariel Fenster

Chem 110 Alanna Houston FINAL REVIEW - E = hf - KE elex=ctron = 1/2msubeu^2 = hf-hfo = hv-psi - M,s,kg,j - For absorption, ni is less than nf - For emission, ni is greater than nf - Rsubn = n^2asubo - Know the energy corresponding to photon energy: delta e = 2.179 FINISH - Memorize the bohr model for all h like species - Ionization energy equation - DeBroglie equation predicts that matter should have waves equation - Uncertainty principle o H is planck’s constant - Know the quantum numbers o N is the principal quantum number – greater than zero o L is the angular momentum quantum number (0 to n-1) o L gives which subshell (0- s etc.) o Ml magnetic quantum number (2l + 1) – number of electrons in the orbital o Each l number gets two electrons o Ms spin quantum number +1/2 or –1/2For paired electrons in an orbital, magnetic fields cancel o Spin up: south is upwards but in spin down, the north is on top o For unpaired single electrons in an orbital, there is a net magnetic field (paramagnetic) - Electrons occupy orbitals in a way that minimizes the energy of the atom - No two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers (Pauli Exclusion Principle – know definition of this) - Memorize diagonal drawing - Electrons will occupy orbitals of the same energy single (unpaired) the single electron in these degenerate (same energy) orbitals will have the same spin state (Hund’s Rule) - Once orbitals of the same energy are filled singly, additional electrons can be added with the opposite spin - We choose to write lower n to the left instead of filling order because ionized electrons are usually pulled from the orbital with the higher n (which may not be the last one filled as in this case) - The exceptions: for extra stability for filled and half-filled d orbitals - In Cr, 5 in 3d FINISH - Metals lose electrons to get to noble gas - Non-metals tend to gain electrons to get to noble gas and therefore negative ions - Valence electrons shield each other to a much smaller ectent - Putting in valence electrons so S ~ constant while z increases therefore Zeff increases and radius decreases - S block and p block radius increases down and increases across - Cations are smaller than the parent atoms Chem 110 Alanna Houston - Cations lose electrons but z stays the same - For isoelectronic cations, the more positive charge, the smaller the ionic radius (z is different) ** They have the same number of electrons - Anions are larger than the parent atoms - Anions gain electrons but z stays constant - For isoelectronic ions…the more negative charge, the larger the ionic radius - Ionization energy: energy required to strip an electron from a gaseous state atom (or ion) o Not spontaneous…requires energy input o One right before the big jump is the one o Opposite trends to size - Electron Affinity is the energy change when an electron is added to a gaseous state atom (or ion) o Becomes less negative (lower affinity) down a group o NEGATIVE – the larger the affinity, the larger the negative value o Look at the trends diagram summary - Determine electron configuration to see if there are unpaired electrons (ADD PROBLEMS) NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY - Look at half life and emission stuff (alpha, beta, gamma) - Bottom is atomic number – number of protons - Top is the mass number, the number of protons and neutrons - HALF LIFE - do practice problems - Carbon 14 dating o Half life = 5370 years - Ln(Nt/No) = -k x t - K = 0.693/tsub(1/2) - Carbon cycle: Living system: C14/C12 is constant. Dead system: C14/C12 is decreasing - Atmosphere: look at diagram - E = mc^2 - 1 amu = 1.6606x10^-24 g (MAKE SURE YOU CONVERT THIS TO KG) - 1 amu = 1.4924 x 10^-10 Joules - 1 amu = 931.5 MeV - Number you get for deltaE is per nucleon - Multiply by Na to get it per mol / nucleus - Divide by molecular weight to get it per gram - Go over fission and fusion theory and reactors - Know Lewis structures - Formal charge is the number of valence electrons from all atoms minus the number of lone pair electrons minus half the number of bonding electrons - Least electronegative element is usually in the centre - Carbon atoms are always central atoms - Symmetrical structures are usually preferred - Best resonance structure has the smallest formal charges - VSEPR theory KNOW Chem 110 Alanna Houston - Lp-lp>lp-bp>bp-bp - For geometrical considerations, a multiple bond can be treated as if it were a single bond - Polarity: polar molecules have a net dipole moment - Non-polar molecules have no net dipole moment - Valence Bond Theory: o S-s overlap o S-p overlap o P-p overlap o Single bonds are always sigma o Double bonds are one sigma and one pi o Triple bonds are one sigma and two pi o Always come head to head overlap s-s and s-p - Hybridization: o If there are two electron pairs, it is linear and has sp hybridization o If there are three electron pairs, it is Trigonal planar and has sp2 hybridization o If there are four electron pairs, it is tetrahedral and has sp3 hybridization o If there are five electron pairs, it has Trigonal bipyramidal geometry and sp3d hybridization o If there are six electron pairs, it has octahedral geometry and has sp3d2 hybridization o Multiple bonds are considered as single bonds o Each lone pair is also an ‘arm’ - MO Theory: o Energy level diagrams o Derive a set of molecular orbitals o Arrange the molecula
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