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McGill University
CHEM 183
Joe Schwarcz

World of Chem Drugs – Final Exam Summary Notes MENTAL ILLNESS - Neurotransmitters – released by neurons, modulate brain function, role in mental illness - Ex.: serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, GABA - Neurotransmitters are synthesized within a nerve cell and stored at tip of axon of transmitting cell in vesicles - Neuron fires, electrical impulse carried along one cell and is transmitted to next – carrying electrical impulse constitutes the nerve signal - When impulse reaches end of axon, neurotransmitters released into synapse and react with neurotransmitter receptors, causes propagation of electrical impulse on dendrite of next neuron - Dendrites – involved in receiving a signal – short wavy arms from cell central body - Axon Tail – involved in transmitting signal – long-tail - Synapse – space b/w axon of one cell and dendrite of another - Ways to Chemically Interfere with Neurotransmitter Signaling Pathway: 1.Lock and Key Method – drug designed to block neurotransmitter-receiving receptors on signal-receiving cell, no electrical impulse transmitter b/w cells 2.Drugs designed to interfere with synthesis of neurotransmitters 3.Prevention or Stimulation of Neurotransmitter Release - Neurotransmitters are recycled – taken up by transmitting (original) cell following signal firing where it is recycled to produce more neurotransmitter – drugs can interfere with enzymes that modulate biochemical recycling of neurotransmitter - Drugs designed to block reuptake, by blocking enzyme involved in reuptake - Reserpine – stops nerve impulses by causes norepinephrine to leak out of vesicles (if neurotransmitter leaks out then impulse cannot be transferred across synapse) - Amphetamines (are stimulants) – squeeze Norepinephrine and Dopamine out of vesicles, causes them to release into synapse - Tricyclics (mood elevators) – prevent reuptake of neurotransmitters, by increasing concentration of neurotransmitters in synapse - MAO Inhibitors – interferes with enzyme responsible for breakdown of neurotransmitters, preventing breakdown of neurotransmitters, which increases concentration in synapse - Neuroleptics (used to treat Schizophrenia) – block receptors on receiving cells specific for dopamine neurotransmitter Schizophrenia - Classic mental illness, ‘mad people’, not a split-personality disorder - Historically (up to 20th c.) treated horrifically - Mental condition characterized by a loss of contact with reality – visual/auditory hallucinations, delusions of persecution, common belief that people are out to get them - Henri Laborit (1952) – physician, contributed to development of modern treatment of schizophrenia - Noticed patients had heart attacks right before a planned surgery, believed it was due to anxiety. Anti- histamines were available at the time to cure anxiety. Laborit thought anxiety could be treated with anti- histamines, b/c histamine was a bad thing to have released in your blood - Used Promethazine (Phenergan), an anti-histamine to try and stop anxiety – did not alleviate anxiety, but made patients more prone to sleeping – suggested use of it to psychiatric dept. - Scientists analyzed Promethazine, tried to find similar molecules to see if they had parallel effects on patients - Chlorpromazine (Thoraine) – similar to Promethazine – induces calming effects with patients by reducing dopamine levels through blocking dopamine receptors – psychiatric patients and schizophrenics treated with this – problem was it provoked shaking and paralysis (Parkinson-like symptoms) - Nathan Kline (1952) – psychiatrist, experimenting with drugs for schizophrenia - Reserpine – snakeroot plant – used for lowering blood pressure, antihypertensive – had tranquilizing and calming effects – used on Schizophrenics, had Parkinson-like symptoms - Chlorpromazine and Reserpine have different structures, but appeared to have the same effect – possible because there is a difference in the mechanism of action – both drugs deprive a post-synaptic neuron of dopamine - Chlorpromazine – blocks dopamine receptors – overproduction of dopamine causes schizophrenia, by blocking receptor’s activity on receiving nerve cells dopamine cannot carry out its function - Reserpine – causes dopamine to leak out of vesicles – less dopamine released upon nerve excitation which reduces level of dopamine in synapse - Parkinson’s Disease – caused by lack of dopamine – too much dopamine blocked, may causes Parkinson’s-like symptoms 1 World of Chem Drugs – Final Exam Summary Notes - Perphenazine – improved version of Chlorpromazine – molecular structure similar to Chlorpromazine – reduces side effects which is why its a popular drug for treatment of Schizophrenia - Haldol (Haloperidol) – Schizophrenia drug, still has Parkinson’s-like side effects – also used on agitated patients esp. in retirement homes and hospitals - Other Common Drugs: Clozapine (Clozaril), Risperidone (Risperdal), Olanzapine (Zyprexa) - 25% of Schizophrenics achieve remission with approp. medications - Best Drug? just b/c a drug is new does not make it better, new drugs more expensive and efficacy is relatively the same as old drugs Depression - Characterized by a feeling of hopelessness, pessimism and uselessness – depressed feel this way for no apparent reason - Antidepressants used to treat depression, most popular prescription drugs - Scientology – against the use of drugs to treat mental illness - Tricyclics – first group of antidepressants discovered - Called Tricyclics b/c they have 3 rings of carbon atoms in their molecular structure - Discovery was the result of a search for a better version of Chlorpromazine - Imipramine (Tofranil) was a Chlorpromazine derivative – ineffective in treating Schizophrenia, but improved mood – blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine (neurotransmitters involved in mood), causes an increased concentration of neurotransmitter in synapse leading to constant firing of neuron causing improved mood - Amitriptyline (Deprex) – discovered by modifying Imipramine – very successful antidepressant - Anafranil - Side Effects of Tricyclics: - Anticholinergic – dry mouth, blurred vision – Anti-Acetylcholine actions caused by blocking Acetylcholine neurotransmitter receptor - Antiadrenergic – irregular heart beat – Anti-Epinephrine actions caused by blocking epinephrine (adrenaline) receptor - Also block reuptake of other neurotransmitters which leads to side effects - Ideally, antidepressant will minimize cross-reaction with receptors of other neurotransmitters, thereby reducing the severity of side effects caused by drug - Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) – prevent reuptake of serotonin, no cross-reactivity with acetylcholine or epinephrine – blocks serotonin reuptake, increases concentration of serotonin in synapse, results in increased feelings of happiness - Prozac – increases levels of serotonin and norepinephrine in synapse without causing side effects of tricyclics – it is the most frequently prescribed antidepressant by psychiatrists - Other SSRIs: Sertraline (Zoloft), Fluovoxamine (Luvox), Maprotiline (Ludiomil), Paroxetine (Paxil), Trazodone (Desyrel), Citalopram (Celexa) - Side Effects of SSRIs: - Nausea, Anxiety, Sleep disturbances, Sexual dysfunction - A possible side effect is a higher suicide rate – debate over if the drug is causing the higher suicide rate or if it is the depression itself – no scientific proof it is the SSRIs - Joseph Wesbecker, Louisville, KY (1989) – went on shooting spree, was taking Prozac for depression – Prozac never shown as cause of rampage - MAO (Monoamine Oxidase) Inhibitors - Discovered accidentally in 1950s, prime drug used to treat TB was Iproniazid, also caused patients to be happy - Nathan Kline tried Iproniazid on depressed patients and found that it worked - Some patients developed high blood pressure or suffered strokes – patients that suffered from these side effects had eaten aged cheese or meat - Tyramine (found in cheese, red wine, aged meat) is a vasopressor, leads to high blood pressure - tyramine is broken down by MAO, blocking MAO with MAO inhibitors stops breakdown of Tyramine, which raises blood pressure - Patients on MAO Inhibitors should stay away from foods with tyramine: beer, wine, chocolate, chicken liver, herring, aged cheese, demerol, decongestants - MAO regulates: norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin - MAO is the enzyme that breaks down these neurotransmitters – to increase amount of neurotransmitters, decrease the action of MAO – MAO inhibitors (ex. Iproniazid) increase the concentration of neurotransmitters and happy moods 2 World of Chem Drugs – Final Exam Summary Notes Bipolar (Manic-Depressive) Disease - Depression is sometimes associated with mania - Characterized by extreme changes in an individual’s personality – personality type seen as cyclic - Behavior predictable based on certain stimulus - John Cade – in a Japanese prison camp during WWII, observed a mental illness that is maybe caused by some toxin that enters the brain and is subsequently excreted in urine – was referring to Bipolar Disease - Cade examined urine, injected urine from mentally ill patients into guinea pigs, urine from manic patients killed guinea pigs faster - Postulated that Uric Acid was killing guinea pigs – wanted to test if Uric acid could kill guinea pigs alone, could not do so because uric acid is not soluble in water – neutralized it with Lithium Carbonate (which is a base, so he formed a salt), formed Lithium Urate which is soluble in water - Found Lithium Urate had a calming effect on guinea pigs – began to use it to treat agitated patients and manic-depressive individuals - Lithium – interferes with inositol synthesis (messenger within a cell that responds to neurotransmitter signaling) – side effects: trembling hands, odd tongue movements, nausea - Depakote – used to treat bipolar disorder Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) - 2% of population suffer from OCD - 20% of first degree relatives of sufferers of OCD also have OCD – suggests a genetic component to the disease - 20% of OCD patients have ticks, 50% of people with Tourette’s have OCD - Tourette’s is a condition where the person makes sounds or utters obscenities and cannot control it - Trigotylomania: pulling and twisting of hair to the point of removal (type of OCD) - Obsession: unwanted, unreasonable and intrusive thought - Compulsion: rituals performed to gain relief from obsessive thoughts - Howard Hughes – built Spruce Goose, largest wood-built plane – had OCD - OCD is not due to some deeply rooted emotional conflict - Patients with OCD see 3–4 doctors, spent 9 years seeking treatment before correct diagnosis, takes 17 years from onset of OCD to find approp. treatment - Causes of OCD - Manifested by a physical change in brain chemistry - OCD-suffering individuals have high energy use in the brain – PET scans show the reductions in brain caudate nucleus activity following drug treatment or successful behavior therapy - Sometimes physical injury to brain can result in OCD-like symptoms - Gourmand Syndrome: OCD that involves obsession of eating, cooking, talking/writing about food - has occurred in individuals who had a stroke - Streptococci bacteria believed to cause OCD - Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders (PANDA) associated with streptococcus infections – thought that antibodies generate to protect against streptococcal bacteria can attack brain and cause OCD, these antibodies can be filtered out to relieve OCD symptoms - Treatment for OCD - Anafranil – antidepressant – increases serotonin levels - Side Effects: dizziness, sedation, dry mouth, weight gain, sexual dysfunction - Prozac and other SSRIs – best chance of working and best side effect profile - Side Effects: anxiety, decreased libido, sexual dysfunction, diarrhea, sedation, headaches, insomnia, dizziness, nausea - 40–60% of OCD patients response to SSRIs with an improvement in symptoms in 30% - 10–12 weeks to see improvements - 90% of patients will relapse if drugs are stopped, no cure for OCD - Other Drugs: Fluoxetine (Proxac), Fuvoxamine (Luvox), Sertraline (Zoloft), Paroxetine (Paxil) - St. John’s Wort – mild antidepressant, available OTC - Behavior Therapy – 10–20 sessions can improve symptoms by 85%, most effective treatment - Confrontation or Challenge Therapy – confront their fear while assured they are safe - Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation sometimes used 3 World of Chem Drugs – Final Exam Summary Notes Anti-Anxiety Agents - Anxiety: feeling of apprehension, uncertainty or fear that is out of proportion to a stimulus - With anxiety you have an excess of activity of neurotransmitters - Barbiturates – introduced in late 1800s as sleeping agents – first drugs used to treat anxiety – effective but addictive - Frank Berger – testing drugs for antibiotic activity, tested Mephenisin which turned out to have muscle relaxant properties (used in surgeries) and anti-anxiety effects - Meprobamate (Miltown) – synthetic, anti-anxiety effects - Librium and Valium (chemical derivative of Librium, better side effect profile) – popular b/c of good side effect profiles - Increases quantity of GABA (gamma-amino-butanoic-acid, an inhibitory neurotransmitter), slows down information transmission b/w brain cells, can induce sleep at high doses, often abused - Dalmane (Flurazepam) – anti-anxiety drug, can put you to sleep at high doses - Xanax (Alprasolam); Ativan (Lorazepam), famous, puts people to sleep - Note: if it ends in “pam” means it has strong sleep inducing effects - None of these drugs can be taken with alcohol, should not be mixed - Barbiturates can cause CNS depression, some people also commit suicide DRUGS OF ABUSE/STREET DRUGS - Drugs of Abuse: - Cannabinoids – Marijuana, Hashish - CNS Stimulants – Cocaine, Amphetamines - CNS Depressants – Barbiturates, Valium - Hallucinogens – LSD, PCP, Psilocybin - Opioids – Heroin, Morphine - Anticholinergics – Belladonna, Jimson Weed - Volatiles – Solvents - Designer Drugs – Fentanyl Analogues - High school students in US: 12% regularly use marijuana, 12% use cigarettes, 35% use alcohol (2x/week), 35% have never tried a cigarette, 55% have never tried marijuana Marijuana - Comes from a plant, can be grown anywhere with the use of lights - Contains THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) - Hemp Rope: made from stalks for marijuana plants, it is the primary reason these plants were first planted, today the plants used to make it have a low THC content - Hemp seeds have low THC content, nutritious b/c they are high in Omega 3 - Smoke from marijuana is damaging to lungs, but there is less exposure to smoke b/c people do not smoke as many joints as cigarettes - To use must dry leaves, cut them, roll in paper and smoke - Leaves have microscopic oily drops on surface which contain high concentrations of THC – scraping this oil give you Hashish – concentrated THC, highest THC content - History: - Chinese – Shen Nung dynasty, cannabis seeds used as currency - Ancient Greeks – throw cannabis seeds into fire and inhale fumes - Middle East – supposedly Hassan was a hired assassin who lived 1,000 years ago and would offer visions of heaven and bribe and reward people with his drug Hashish - Napoleon – introduced marijuana to Europe, discovered plant in Africa - Alexandre Dumas – one of the founders of ‘Club Des Hachichiens’ in Paris - New Orleans, 1930s – port city, crowded, high crime rate, marijuana was an active commodity - High crime rate blamed on marijuana, began passing of laws against it - National Law – Marijuana Stamp Act, almost passed, was realized cannabis seed that was being banned was used for bird seed - Effects: - Euphoria - Boosts appetite (often to given to anorexics, HIV patients, patients who need to gain weight) - Used during sexual activities, but it is not directly an aphrodisiac - Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): - Resembles Anandamide – naturally occurring compound in our bodies that controls mood - Effects our reaction time, accidents more likely to happen 4 World of Chem Drugs – Final Exam Summary Notes - Papers showing it causes: sterility, impotence, chromosome damage, lung damage, brain damage – unsure if this is factual, studies done on animals in high doses - Increases heart attack risk - Chronic users will suffer from cognitive impairment - Medical Marijuana: can also be used as a medication – Canada first to legalize use in 2001 - Strong Anti-Nausea Effect – often used to counter effect of chemo - Appetite Stimulant – used to counter wasting diseases – available under prescription as Marinol pills - Anti-Convulsive – reduces convulsions, used for epilepsy - Useful for MS – reduces pain – available as Sativex spray containing THC and cannabidol for treatment of neuropathic pain, patients claim smoking pot works better b/c smoking gets into blood stream faster - Glaucoma – reduces eye pressure – first weed prescriptions used on people with glaucoma, grown at U. of Missouri, came up with USDA standard joint with 2.04% THC - Marijuana carries a stigma of abuse – 1.5M smoke it recreationally in Canada, 600,000 Canadians have a criminal record for possession which costs $1.3B per year - Caught with 15g – $250 for youth, $400 for adults - Caught with 15–30g – police have discretion for fines or criminal charges - Max. Sentence for illegal grow-ops was raised from 7 to 14 years, can get life in prison for trafficking Stimulants – compounds that energize your body, ex. caffeine, cocaine - Caffeine: is a potent stimulant - High doses leads to high blood pressure - Strychnine: used as a rat poison, can stimulate death, small doses can have invigorating effects – extracted from berries from a tree Cocaine - Only similarity with marijuana is that it is also produced by a plant (Coca plant, semi-tropical, hard to grow) - Cocaine effects dopamine by inhibiting reuptake of dopamine - Chewing leaves does not have a strong effects, since it is insoluble in water - Effects: euphoria (a sense of well being, reduced anxiety, heightened state of alertness) - Coca Plant – flavoring agent used in Coca Cola, was never any significant amount of cocaine in drink, Stepan Chemical Company in NJ is the only one that can legally import the leaves - Vin Mariani (French Wine) contained cocaine - Previously used as a medication – ex. for toothaches, local anesthetic; physicians used it as a stimulant - Today is sometimes used as anesthetic for eye/nasal surgery if patient is allergic to others - Freud was one of the first to experiment with cocaine, reported its local anesthetic effects - Not physically addictive (meaning if you take cocaine away from someone they won’t have a physical reaction) but it is psychologically addictive - Withdrawal Symptoms – signs the drug is psychologically addictive - Addiction can involve the development of a tolerance, whereby more of the drug is needed, BUT this is not true for cocaine more is not needed to get high - Need to convert leaves into Cocaine Hydrochloride before it can be turned into powder form - When leaves are boiled in hydrochloric acid, cocaine from leaves is converted into cocaine hydrochloride which is soluble in water, water is evaporated and then you get the powder, it is not volatile so you need to convert it back to cocaine using a base like ammonia - Freebase Cocaine: take cocaine hydrochloride and treat it with a base like sodium hydroxide/ammonia, this will transform it back into its original form, like the cocaine found in the plant – cannot be snorted because it is not water soluble, but has a lower melting point so can be smoked - Makes cracking sound when burned, hence crack cocaine - Hits bloodstream quickly, can cause effects on first contact with drug, like cardiac arrhythmia, stroke, seizures, psychiatric disturbances Amphetamines – another class of stimulants, introduced during search for drugs to open bronchial tubes for treatment of asthma, however they did not work - Resembles ephedrine, found in plants - Sometimes used to treat for appetite control or to treat attention disorders - Amphetamines force dopamine out of storage vesicles in nerve cells - Dopamine is the euphoria-inducing neurotransmitter – high doses can cause schizophrenia, or schizophrenia-like symptoms (sometimes used to treat Parkinson’s disease, but there are better drugs) 5 World of Chem Drugs – Final Exam Summary Notes - Methamphetamine (Meth): easily synthesized, contains an additional methyl group (-CH3) - Produced by converting Sudafed (Pseudoephedrine) to amphetamine - Ammonia needed, crystal meth manufacturers often steal it from farmers who use it as fertilizer - Opioids: poppy plant, mostly grown in Afghanistan - Previously used as a medicine - Opium – obtained directly from plant, smoked - Morphine (compound) – purified from Opium (a mixture of compounds) - Named after Morpheus (greek god of dreams) – can put you to sleep or if a little to much is taken it will cause death (therapeutic window not wide) - Has a ring containing nitrogen - Can be synthesized, but extracted from poppy because it is economically feasible - Adding an acetyl group makes Heroin (Diacetylmorphone) - $2000 worth of morphine can be transformed into $1M as heroin - Heroin (Diacetylmorphone): initially created to curb morphines addictive properties, turned out to be more addictive - Used to be used as a cough suppressant, sold by Bayer (makers of Aspirin) - Heroin addiction is a fuel for crime - Physically addictive, may die if you stop using - Injected intravenously, potential lethal contaminants (HIV if needles are shared) Hallucinogens – caused hallucinations - Peyote Cactus – produces mescaline, chemically similar to dopamine – causes visions when smoked - Serotonin Psychedelics – resemble serotonin, happiness molecule - Psilocybin is found in magic mushrooms - Toad Licking – Bufo Toad produces bufotenine, high doses has hallucination-inducing effects - Ololiuqui Plant – hallucinogenic seeds - Lysergic Acid – produced by ergot fungus (grows on rye), can get people high – 1692 Salem witch trials - Albert Hoffman, discovered Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) – Isolated lysergic acid from fungus to make a derivative of it – Got some in his mouth, noted weird symptoms (pleasant intoxicated condition, hallucinations) - Do not really need a chemical background to make - LSD chemically resembles serotonin, fits into serotonin receptors - Need a milligram to have an effect, strong – strong hallucinatory effects – after a single use can have another trip later on, molecules of drug are stored - Timothy Leary believed all students should take LSD - PCP (Phenylcyclidine) – danger of LSD, “Angel Dust” – more dangerous than LSD, can cause stroke or intracranial haemorrhage Anticholinergics – Ex. Belladonna Plant: Atropine is the active ingredient - Romans believed dilated pupils made a woman beautiful (side effect of atropine), hence the name - Atropine is an anticholinergic, which blocks action of acetylcholine and can cause hallucinations - Angel’s Trumpet – flower that produces atropine Volatiles – Sniffing Solvents – similar to inhalation of methane – bag often placed over head to maximize inhalation - Inexpensive hydrocarbon solvents – liquid paper, paint thinner, glue, pen ink Designer Drugs – Ex. Fentanyl Analogues - Drugs made illegally by people with some chemical knowledge - Goal is to make a drug that has never existed before, since technically it is not yet illegal - Primitive equipment is used - Fentanyl - commonly used as an anesthetic in hospitals - Methylfentanyl (While China) – once sold legally as the new version of heroin, but it is more dangerous – 200g of fentanyl makes 200,000,000 doses of methylfentanyl – $2,000 of fentanyl leads to $1B profit of methylfentanyl - 20 years ago, 30 cases of patients with permanent Parkinson’s-like symptoms due to use of White China - Meperidine (Demerol) – commonly used as a pain killer – chemist switched oxygen compound for a carbon compound, making it legal for him to sell it – had a euphoric effect – chemist did not purify the compound properly - Today, certain compounds structures are on a list of illegal substances, any sort of derivative is illegal 6 World of Chem Drugs – Final Exam Summary Notes - Ecstasy – Methylenedioxymethamohetamine (MDMA) - Made easily, 800,000 users in N. America - Induces euphoria - Neurotoxic in animals – can cause hyperthermia, which can be lethal, increases heart rate and blood pressure - Dose Dependent – high dose can cause confusion, depression, anxiety - Concern – getting ketamine, anesthetic used by vets that is easier to obtain than ecstasy - Herbal Ecstasy: ephedrine, extracted from ephedra plant – once used as an appetite suppressant, higher doses cause euphoria, illegal b/c it causes heart attacks Homeopathy – Therapeutic system of medicine based on hypothesis that “like cures like”, that a substance that can cause certain symptoms in a healthy person can cure similar symptoms in an unhealthy person in dilute doses - Not very trusted in Western countries, more trusted in Brazil and India – more homeopaths than Indian physicians, homeopath more commonly used than traditional medicine - Chemically and biologically implausible, can be psychologically compelling - Form of Alternative Medicine: medicine that is not taught in medical schools because there is no evidence to back it up - Samuel Hahnemann, introduced concept of “like cures like” – favored dilution of 30C - Malaria – cinchona tree bark extract (Peruvian bark) contained quinine, an active ingredient that worked to reduce fever caused by Malaria – tried some back and got a fever and then used it to treat Malaria patients and it works (was a coincidence that he got fever) - Law of Infinitesimals: more dilute a substance would be, the more powerful it would be when given as a drug - Principle of Succession: when he made a house call found his substances worked better, logic was as he rode on stone the vibrations potentiated the remedies - Dilution Process – 1 drop in 99 drops of alcohols, take one drop from that and mix it in another 99 drops of alcohol etc...Each C signifies one dilution, ex. 12C means process was done 12 times - Sit John Forbes, Queen Victoria’s Physician said homeopathy was an outrage to human reason - 1988 – Nature (respected scientific paper) published a paper documenting a homeopathic effect by Jacques Benveniste - Diluted an antigen to the extent that there were no original molecules left (10 ) and showed it could give rise to a biological response when shaken not stirred, b/c shaking it left an imprint on the water - Editors of Nature did not believe results, but Benveniste was well respected, asked to duplicate experiment under eyes of committee and results were not duplicated and Nature published an article to clarify - Benveniste maintained his original results were sound, founded a company (Digibio) to investigate effect further - Concluded could transmit homeopathic info. over the internet using electrodes - Homeopathic journals are packed with papers that demonstrate efficiency of homeopathy – due to randomness it is possible that results seem positive - Most experiments use P=0.5 to represent the chance that results reported are accurate, meaning that results obtained would be expected 19/20, also meaning same results may have been obtained 1/20 - Only papers with positive results are published - Meta-Analysis of all homeopathic studies published in The Lancet (2005) showed their results are no better than placebo - The Cochrane Collaboration – findings currency available in Cochrane review studies of homeopathy do not show that its any better than placebo - Different homeopaths give different treatment for same illness - UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee – looked into homeopathy, concluded it was a placebo effect and should not be financed by state - Health Canada gives DIN-HM (drug identification number for homeopathy) – only requires proof of safety - Every Oct. 23rd (10th month, 23rd day = Avogadro’s number 10 ) people protest homeopathy by swallowing many homeopathic pills to prove there is no effect - Oscillococcinum – given for treatment of flu, made from a substance from the duck liver, diluted to 200C - How is Homeopathy Still Around? - Placebo effect - Regression to the mean – symptoms come and go - Standard treatments used in combination - Fear of conventional treatment 7 World of Chem Drugs – Final Exam Summary Notes TOBACCO - Tobacco kills more people per year than AIDS, Cocaine, Alcohol, Homicide and Suicide combined - 400,000 deaths in N. America due to smoking related illnesses - Second-hand smoke kills 500 Canadians per year - If smokers were to quit, avg. lifespan in N. American would increase by 10 years - 965 50% of Canadians smoked, today 20% of Canadians smoke, 25% of Quebecers smoke, lowest BC 16% - Highest territory Nunavut 61.3%, NW territories 35.7%, Yukon 35.5% - China – 385M smokers - Nov. 12, 1492 – Columbus noticed natives in DR smoking - Tobacco comes from the work Tabbagos meaning rolled leaves (or island of Tobago, which is where first shipment came from to Europe) - Tobacco placed on bridges in Europe in the form of Tobacco Resuscitator kits, believed blowing into a drowning persons mouth would revive them - Initially smoked in pipes with a long stem b/c tobacco smoke was harsh – chemicals would deposit on insides of long pipe so they weren’t inhaled - Used to be snuffed – stuffed up nostrils, distinguished – nasal passages have a thin skin membrane causing chemicals to get absorbed quickly - American Revolution – people stopped snuffing tobacco and started chewing it – popular in S. States, Spittoons for people to spit it out (rich would snuff, poor would chew) - World record for spitting is 25 ft. 10 in. - La Cometa by Goya – first representation of someone smoking - Crimean War (1853–1856) – Britain & France vs. Russia – near Turkey – Europeans began smoking, before this was mostly done in Middle East - Early cigarettes came fro Turkey, considered to be better – cigarettes rolled by hand, making them expensive and a luxury - Never light 3 cigarettes on the same match – 1st opposing soldiers see you, 2nd they aim, 3rd fire - 1880 – Bonsack Machine – could roll cigarettes automatically (2000/min) - 1990s – Flue-Curing Process (or the American Process) – allowed for less harsh cigarette smoke - Prior to this people did not inhale smoke, now people began inhaling which led to lung problems - Camel Cigarette first made to use this process in 1913, American Cancer Society also founded in 1913 - Many cigarettes had Oriental names – thought to be better quality - Late 1800s average smoker smoked 50 cigs/year; today 10,000 ci
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