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CHEM 203 (7)
Midterm

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 203
Professor
William C.Galley
Semester
Fall

Description
1CHEM203NOTESFORMIDTERMIITableofContentsHEAT3HEATINGANDCOOLINGAGAS3JOULESEXPERIMENT3THEJOULETHOMSONEXPERIMENT4JOULETHOMSONCOEFFICIENT5LATERMODIFICATIONS5REVERSIBLECASEWITHMAXIMUMWORK5CYCLICPROCESS8ENTROPY9NDTHE2LAWOFTHERMODYNAMICS9THETDEPENDENCEOFENTROPY10SFORPHASETRANSITIONS10RDTHE3LAWOFTHERMODYNAMICS102PARTICLEMODEL11RULES12ISOTHERMALEXPANSIONOFANIDEALGAS12MIXINGAHOTANDCOLDGASEACHWITH2PARTICLES13ISOTHERMALDIFFUSION14THERMALEQUILIBRATIONPLUSISOTHERMALDIFFUSION15ENTROPYCHANGESINREACTIONS15FREEENERGY16HELMHOLTZFREEENERGYCHANGES16CONSTANTVOLUME16CONSTANTPRESSUREORCONSTANTTEMPERATURE16GIBBSFREEENERGYCHANGES16ISOTHERMALGASEXPANSION17REDOXREACTIONS17EXAMPLEDENATURATIONOFAGLOBULARPROTEIN19EXAMPLEHOTANDCOLDWATERARECOMBINEDINASTYROFOAMCUP20REACTIONEQUILIBRIUMQUOTIENTS21THEREACTIONQUOTIENT21EQUILIBRIUMCONSTANTK22ORELATIONBETWEENGANDTHEEQUILIBRIUMCONSTANT22THECHANGESINSASREACTIONSREACHEQUILIBRIUM22THEVANTHOFFRELATIONANDTHETDEPENDENCEOFK23ENDOTHERMICOREXOTHERMIC242LINEARVANTHOFFPLOT24NONLINEARVANTHOFFPLOT24LECHATELIERSVIEW25THE5FUNDAMENTALSPONTANEOUSWEIGHTELASTICTHERMODYNAMICPROCESSES26ELASTICITYOFARUBBERBAND26INTERNALWORK29DRIVINGFORCE29SHIFTINEQUILIBRIUMWITHINCREASINGT32THERESPONSEOFANEXOTHERMICPROCESSTOINCREASINGT32THERESPONSEOFANENDOTHERMICPROCESSTOINCREASINGT32THERESPONSEOFANISOTHERMALPROCESSTOINCREASINGT33ACTIVETRANSPORTANDOTHERCOUPLEDPROCESSES35DIFFUSIONWITHTHECONCENTRATIONGRADIENT35ACTIVETRANSPORTDIFFUSIONAGAINSTTHECONCENTRATIONGRADIENT35MEMBRANEPOTENTIAL37THEMITCHELLCHEMIOSMOTICHYPOTHESIS38CHEMICALSYNTHESISOFADIPEPTIDE38HYDROPHOBICBONDING39CHOLESTEROLCONVERTEDTOBILEACIDSINLIVER39THERMODYNAMICANALYSISOFDNAANDPROTEINS42HT42ST43GT43KFRACTIONTHATISDENATURED43TDNADENATURATION43PROTEINDENATURATION43SPONTANEOUSRENATURATIONOFGLOBULARPROTEINS44PROCESSATRANSITIONFROMORDEREDGLOBULARSTRUCTURETORANDOMCOIL44PROCESSBHYDROPHOBICHYDRATION44NETEFFECT44SIMILARCHANGESINAWEIGHTELASTICPROCESS45COLDDENATURATION45LIGANDMACROMOLECULEINTERACTIONS46SATURATION46EQUILIBRIUM473HeatAsignificantaspectofthermodynamicsthatmakesitdifficultisthatthemeasurementsthataremadeofegofqandwmustbeobtainedunderspecificconditionsiftheyaretobeusedasameasureofchangesinstatefunctionswhenaprocessoccurs1 qEifa theprocessiscarriedoutirreversiblyb wwandw0usefulexpansion2 qHifa processcarriedoutirreversiblyw0usefulb w0Pconstantexp3 qTSa reversibleprocessi wwmaxusefulusefulHeatingandcoolingagasForagasexpansionenergyintheformofheatisabsorbedfromthesurroundingsandgoesbackintothesurroundingsintheformofworkJoulesexperimentIntheexperimentcarriedoutbyJouleagasinthelefthandbulbshowninthefigurewasallowedtoexpandintotherighthandbulbwhenthestopcockwasopenedAnyheatproducedorconsumedintheprocessofexpandingthegaswasallowedtotransfertoawaterbathwhichwasthermallyinsulatedfromthesurroundingJoulewasnotabletodetectanychangeinthetemperatureofthewaterfortheirreversibleexpansionofthegasandsincetherewasnochangeintemperature
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