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ESYS 104 (1)

earth system 104 midterm review

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McGill University
Earth System Science
ESYS 104
Frédéric Fabr

Hadean 4.6 to 3.8 bya Formation of oceans, second atmosphere, solar system Archean 3.8 to 2.5 bya First life, rocks, continents Proterozoic 2.5 to .5 bya Oxygenated atmosphere, multicellular life, plate tectonics Phanerozoic 542 mya to present Diversified life, hard shells - Paleozoic 542 to 250 mya Diversified life - Mesozoic 250 to 65.5 mya Dinosaurs - Cenozoic 65.5 mya to present Mammals Radioactive Dating (geochronology) Happens at a known, fixed rate in isotopes (rate of decay) N=t e0(Nt= pop. At time t) (No= pop at time 0) (e= nat. log.) (r=growth/decay rate) half-life: Nt/No=1/2=e -rt ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Resources: economic, found Reserves: not currently economic, some are undiscovered Ore= valuable/useful mineral that is economic to mine Economic? Depends on concentration, market value, extraction costs, … Concentration factors depend on abundance and cost of extraction Concentration processes: hydrothermal (hot, water-rich), metamorphic (heat and pressure), magmatic (melting), sedimentary (precipitation from lake), residual (weathering), placer (waves) Impacts: ecosystem disturbance, energy consumption, pollution of water, acid rain Solutions: recycling, new deposits (new areas, techniques) Oil well elements: - source rock - maturation and migration (cooking of source rock) - reservoir (holds oil) - trap and seal (keeps oil from rising to surface) Forcing: -Plate Tectonics (continents, sea-floor spreading, volcanism) -Orbital (tilt, eccentricity, precession) -Sun’s strength (radiation, sunspots) -anthropogenic Greenhouse effect Keeps us cool, radiates/reflects the sun’s radiation back. Carbon cycle -reservoirs: sediments and rocks, deep ocean, soils, ocean surface, vegetation, atmosphere -sources: volcanoes (+), photosynthesis (-), decay
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