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Midterm Notes

Elementary Education
Course Code
EDEE 280
Paul Zanazanian
Study Guide

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EDEE 280 Geography, History and Citizenship Education Paul Zanazanian Winter 2013
history involves:
o imagining the past & all of its events leading to the present & into the future
o understanding past events
o remembering the past & its preserved knowledge/events/trends
the past is not the same as history
o past: what happened
o history: what we share/tell about the evidence of what we think happened
historian’s hurdles
o distance between past and present, what happened vs. today
o choices how to make the past coherent
o interpretive lenses worldview, what stance they will take
why? make sense of time & give meaning to oneself/family/community/society/world
why teach history?
o Parker (2012) judgement; empathy & self-knowledge; imagination; agency; the long view
o Wright & Hutchinson (2010) intrinsic value; building pride in heritage; developing a sense of
identity; avoiding past mistakes; teaching inquiry skills & critical thinking; making better
Farris (2012) “Geography is the study of the earth, including its features and the distribution of its
human inhabitants and other life” (physical vs. human geography)
“geography is the literature of the land”
5 geographical themes
o location
o place unique characteristics
o relationship with places
o movement
o regions characteristics based on feature
why? make sense of space/development & to navigate/control/adapt to environment for survival
why teach geography?
o Parker (2012): MR. HELP
movement humans interacting on earth
humans live in different areas (farms, cities) but they still interact through
travel, communication, products
regions how they form and change
landscapes, landforms
human-environment interaction
everywhere on earth has + and for human settlement in that area
location position on earth’s surface
absolute & relative location describe people & places

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EDEE 280 Geography, History and Citizenship Education Paul Zanazanian Winter 2013
place physical & human characteristics
places have specific characteristics that make them different than others
o Wright & Hutchison (2010) intrinsic value; life skills; job skills; community building
Citizenship Education
aims to:
o preserve & vitalize democracy
o develop productive, wise citizens of the country and world
democracy requires developing such predispositions as:
o critical and autonomous thinking
o peaceful & nonviolent resolution of disputes
o cooperation with others
o toleration of differing opinions & worldviews
o freedom of expression
o civic virtue
why? human concern for living together while being free to think and act
6 dimensions
o deliberation discussion & decision making
o voting & elections
o serve learning & community action
o citizenship knowledge
o citizenship values
o citizenship dispositions & virtues
Connections to the QEP
to understand the organization of a society in its territory
to interpret change in a society and its territory
to be open to the diversity of societies and their territories
Key Connecting Concepts
time = history = change
space = geography = territory
living together = citizenship education = society
3 Central Components of Doing History
historical evidence
o 2 kinds of historical sources
primary sources
secondary sources
o types of records of the past
historian’s narrative skills imagination/creativity
historian’s subjectivity
“the past is a foreign place”

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EDEE 280 Geography, History and Citizenship Education Paul Zanazanian Winter 2013
5 Steps of the Historical Method
selection of a subject for investigation
o inquiry/investigation of what others can written as to not duplicate effort
collection of materials
o what and where?
verification of sources
o external criticism authenticity of the source, is it reliable?
o internal criticism historical reliability
extraction & organization of data
o centering it all in
writing of findings
o creating a plausible narrative, while taking the limits of available evidence and one’s
subjectivity into account
Limits of the Historical Method
evidence hard to come by
available evidence can be poor
few hard facts
complexity behind understanding past reality
complexity behind understanding historical actors
Historical Thinking
historical thinking: act of interpreting and assessing both the evidence from the past that has been left
behind and the narratives that historians and other have constructed from this evidence
o engaging with evidence, making sure it is sound & then using it
o history as an educational (what happened & why draw own conclusions) vs. an
informational (what happened) subject
o history as an inquiry
substantive vs. procedural historical knowledge
o substantive: relates to the substance (content)
o procedural: relates to tools that help you make sense of history
o can’t know about content without making sense of it can’t do one without the other
The 6 Dimensions of Historical Thinking
historical significance which events are important to know?
evidence primary (those who were there) vs. secondary sources (those who were not there)
continuity & change what has improved/declined?
cause & consequences role of human choice
historical perspective
moral judgement right or wrong, past or present?
o do you think slavery is wrong because you live today or does the issue transcend time?
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