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RELG 207 Study Guide - Final Guide: Hanafi, Ijma, Zakat

Religious Studies
Course Code
RELG 207
Arvind Sharma
Study Guide

of 3
Islam: means peace/surrender, “the peace that comes when one surrenders one’s life to God”
Allah: God of Islam
Adam: 1st man and 1st prophet
Abraham: 1st muslim (1st who submits to god) Prophet. He is the father of faith
Ishmael: Abraham’s eldest son and first born, Ishmael’s descendants stay in Mecca and become
Moses: 1st Rasul, messenger who brought the Torah. Author of old testament.
Jesus: 2nd Rasul, teachings recorded in Gospels (good news)
Muhammad: Final Rasul.“seal of prophet” – most important
-In bringing the Qur’an, claims to be the final prophet, because God’s revelation is
completed in the revelation
-Born around 570 AD, his father dies before his birth, and his mother dies at age 6, so his
grandfather and uncle raise him. Main point: Mohammed is HUMAN, the only
uniqueness: instrument through whom God has spoken (contrary to Christianity where
Christ is the son of God and therefore can’t be human)
-At 40 he received his first revelation (610), at (622) migrates to Mekka from Medina, dies
in (632)
Nabi: regular “prophet” or “one who speaks for God”
Rasul: special type of “prophet”: messenger that doesn’t speak on behalf of God, instead brings
God’s word. Rasuls that Muslims recognize: Jesus, Moses, Muhammad.
Jahiliya: “time of ignorance” ignorance of 1 true God/ moral darkness preceded Islam
Koreish/Quraysh tribe: individual who doesn’t exist on his/her own, but in tribes. Koreish tribe
is muhammad’s leading tribe in Mecca – created violence-free zone for those who wanted to
worship Alla, encourages merchants to pray in Mecca (those crossing Arabian desert protected)
Mecca: city Muhammad’s born and where Ka’ba is found. (Saudi araiba peninsula)
Ka’ba: sanctuary built by Abraham and cleansed by Muhammed. Place to worship Allah.
(muslims face it in prayer)
Khadija: Muhammad’s wife – widow who ran merchant business after death of husband –
employed Muhammad (was righteous business man) and offered him marriage (he was 25, she
was 40). He shared all his burden’s and God’s teachings with her.
Mount Hira: where M goes to meditate, where he received 1st revelation at 40 (610). Angel,
Jibrael delivers word of god and tells him to “recite” in the name of God  part of Koran
Night of Power: name of 1st night that M receives the revelation
Yathrib/Medina: city of the prophet. M leaves Mecca and goes to Yathrib at age 42 which
changes to Medina.  where he builds islam as a religions
Hijra: “immigration: muslim emigration from Mecca to Medina. (622). In Medina, first Muslim
Battle of Badr: (624) Muslims attack caravans headed for Mecca for food, win and believe god
fought on behalf their behalf. 300 Muslims vs. 1000 Meccans. M = tribal chief.
Battle of Uhud (625) Muslims defeated on mount Uhud  overconfident/many killed. Receives
revelation that Muslim men can have as many as 4 wives.
Battle of the trench (627): Meccans attack Medina, muslims strategically fight from trenches
because of Meccan’s cavalry warfare  muslims win (peace treaty lasting 10 years)
Koran/qur’an: “recitation” holy text of Islam. Received by Muhammad and delivered by Jibrael
over 23 years. 114 surahs/chapters.
Surah: Chapter of Koran. arranged by revelation not date (first short then long – descending)
Aya: verse of Koran – “sign of God”
Al-Fatiha: 1st surah in the Koran and shortest – start of each prayer
People of the Book: religious groups that have received a revelation from God (Jews and
Plain of Arafat: 1) where prophet receives last revelation and delivers last sermon to muslim
community 2) where at end of history, all humanity will stand before Alla and be judged.
Caliph: “successor to prophet” – M last prophet, future leaders need title = caliph (because not
prophets) – Caliphs rule over entire ummah. (spiritual/religious/political authority)
Ummah: community/nation  those who submit to allah/believe in Islam (founded in Medina)
Four Rightly Guided Caliphs:1st 4 caliphs after M death and participated in Hijra (fled from)
Mecca to Medina in 622)
1. Abu Bakr (632-634 CE): known for Ridda wars/wars of apostasy – tried to suppress
tribes from rebelling. Poisoned because other wanted to be Caliph succeed by umar
2. Umar (634-644): extended Muslim conquest into Middle East and North Africa.
Assassinated by Persian slave (resented being incorporated into muslim world)
3. Uthman (644-656): compiled official version of Qu’ran. Wasn’t politically astute, known
for nepotism  assassinated by fellow Muslims in 656
4. Ali (656-661): nephew of Muhammad. Pple believe M designated Ali to be successor. Ali
assassinated by members of Muslim sect in 661
Sunnis: derived from “deeds/actions”, follow example laid down by prophet. 85-95% of muslims
are Sunni. Believe that 1st 4 caliphs are guided. Have several imams (lowercase bc found in
community – not line descending from Muhammad)  give spiritual guidance to communities.
Shi’ites: 10-12% of Muslims – supporters of Ali, 1st three caliphs are illegit and ali should be 1st
caliph  attach themselves to a line of Imam’s (preachers = successors of Muhammad) for
spiritual guidance.
Five Pillars/Arkaan
1. Shahadah : confession of faith  2 statements: there is only one God, the God Allah and
Muhammad is his prophet.
2. Salat : obligatory prayer 5x / day, beginning, midday, afternoon, late afternoon, evening 
direction of prayer towards Mecca
3. Zakat : giving charity/ compulsory 2.5% of year wealth to those in need.
4. Ramadan : month of fasting from dawn until dusk. Fast from guilty pleasures (sex,
smoking)  end with big feast and exchange gifts.
5. Hajj : pilgrimage to the Ka’ba in Mecca, every Muslim should make the Hajj to Mecca
once in their life.
Jihad: “to struggle”,associated to military conquest – effort required to discern power of God.
-Jihad-i-akbar: “higher” – inner-spiritual struggle (fight against selfish, sinful desires etc.)
- Jihad-i-asgar: “lower – bodily military struggle – in defense of Ummah
Sufism: suf means “wool”, more humble compared to Caliphs – practice asceticism (renounce
worldy possessions/ simple life) – leave society behind and search for mystical knowledge of
God. Characterized by 3 main elemnts: Asceticism: dedicate life to God), love (God is love), and
-Al-Ghazali: famous Persian Muslim philosopher – lawyer but renounced all worldly
accomplishments to become Sufi
-Al-Hallaj: (9th century) Persian sufi teacher and poet. Claimed he was god “I am the
creator of the truth” and was executed
-Rabi’a: Female Persian Sufi Poet (11th century) one should love God for God’s sake
instead of loving him out of fear.
-Rumi: 13th century poet and philosopher: advocated universal understanding of faith, all
religions had valuable insight into the divine truth… encouraged use of artwork, poetry,
and music to worship
Sharia: the “way to the watering whole” to know sharia is to know way into survival.
Ilm, Alim/Ulama: knowledge/person possessing knowledge/ interpreters of law.
Four main sources of Islamic Law:
1. Qur’an: “recitation” (word of God recited) holy text of Islam (how individuals and society
should act) If doesn’t give you your answer, go to next source of Islamic law)
2. Hadith: recordings of words/deeds of prophets
3. Quiyas: “use your head”: analogical reasoning: ways to apply laws that you see in Hadith
and Qur’an to modern day life throughout history of Islam e.g. restriction from drinking
wine = applied to drug use today e.g.
4. Ijma: last recourse: universal consensus of Ummah, whatever we decide will become
authoritative teaching justify democracy in Islam
Five major schools of Law:
1. Jafari: shi’ite schools in iran and iraq
2. Hanafi: Sunni school of Sharia law (prevalent in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh) – most
liberal interpretations of Sharia and emphasis on reasoning
3. Maliki: “…” northern Africa – adds insight on 4 rightly guided caliphs
4. Shafi’I: “…” (Indonesia) – accepts teachings of muhammad’s companions
5. Hanbali: “…” (Saudi Arabia) – most conservative and most literal of 4 previous
Five Categories of Activities (most acceptable to least acceptable)
1. Halal: obligatory (5 pillars)
2. Mustahabb: recommended (greeting)
3. Mubah: neutral (driving)
4. Mukruh: reprehensible (divorce)
5. Haram: absolutely prohibited (eating pork/making images of God)