MUAR 211 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Piano Quintet, Double Concerto, Keyboard Instrument

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Classic Period (c. 1750-1800+)
Vienna, Austria: capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, imperial seat of the Hapsburg dynasty and one
of the most important musical cultural centers in Europe in 18th-19th century.
Esterhazy family: wealthiest and most powerful of the Hungarian royal families, close relatives to imperi-
al family.
Patron/patronage/patronage system: person who gives financial support to a person in exchange for mu-
sic/entertainment. All music was written for a patron.
Joseph Haydn (1732-1809): Born in small Austrian village, found himself a freelance musician with no
patron. Entered the service of the Esterhazy family then became Kapellmeister. As a result, he had free
access to good ensemble players, etc. He also travelled abroad promoting his international reputation (like
Handel, celebrated in London). Largely considered responsible for codifying the structure of the string
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791): born in Salzburg, Austria and legendary for his ability to quick-
ly compose work of extremely high quality. Most known in HIS day as a great pianist renowned for abili-
ty to improvise. Also known as a composer of opera.
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827): born in Bonn, Germany into a family of musicians. Travelled to Vi-
enna and played for Mozart. Moved to Vienna to study with Haydn and stayed there. A keyboard virtuoso.
Became deaf but kept composing. He was a transitional composer; bridged the gap between the Classic
and Romantic eras; he prioritized individual expression.
Invention of the piano c.1700. It is a keyboard instrument that strikes the strings with little hammers, ca-
pable of playing louder and softer.
Fortepiano/pianoforte: capable of playing louder & softer
Description of the following genres:
Symphony: a large orchestral piece in four movements.
Sonata (solo sonata): a chamber music piece. (1): multi-movement genre for a piano alone. (2): mul-
ti-movement genre for instrumental soloist with piano accompaniment (no bassoon continuo).
Concerto (solo concerto): a large composition for orchestra and solo instrument (large-ensemble in multi-
ple movements).
String Quartet: a four-movement musical genre for first violin, second violin, viola & cello.
Double concerto: Concerto that has 2 instrumental soloist + orchestra
Piano quintet: Piano, 2 violin, viola and a cello
Woodwind quintet: flute, oboe, clarinet, horn, bassoon.
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Orchestra (changes that occur during the 1800s): no longer contained a basso continuo section (which
would have often included a keyboard like harpsichord)
Bowed strings of the orchestra: violin, viola, cello (violoncello), double bass (contrabass)
Woodwinds of the late 18th century orchestra: flute, clarinet.
Most common double-reed woodwind instruments: oboe, bassoon.
Common brass instruments of the romantic orchestra: horn (French horn), trumpet, trombone, tuba.
Percussion: timpani
Chamber music: a term for music designed to be played in a room (chamber), a palace drawing room or
small hall. social domestic music making.
Tonality/ functional tonality/ tonal music: system of major and minor keys that was the foundation of mu-
sic theory and practice in the western world from 1600-1900. Also, hierarchal system that emphasizes cer-
tain pitches and chords.
Key/ key area: collection of pitches organised around a central pitch that is called tonic. Also, hierarchal
network of interval relationships.
Major key/ major scale: a group of 7 different pitches featuring this interval pattern, starting on tonic. T
Minor key/ minor scale (2,3-5,6): T S T T S T T
Chromatic scales: a series of pitches moving chromatically in half steps, thereby including all pitches
(12). (*does not define a key*)
Tonic: most important pitch in a key (most stable pitch). Pitch that gives its name to a key and its related
Dominant: 5th note in a major or minor scale, 2nd most important pitch, most important pitch for defining
where the tonic is*.
Modulation: change of key within a piece of music (many classical works modulate to the key of the
Transposition: changing the key of the piece by simply moving the tonic (and all other pitches) either up
or down specific pitches.
Minuet and minuet trio: minuet is a simple dance in triple time at a moderato tempo.
Scherzo and scherzo trio: Fast, rushing movement in triple meter, inherited from minuet. Scherzo means
joke in Italian. Beethoven.
Binary form: a musical form having 2 different sections; AB form.
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Ternary form: a 3-part musical form from in which the last section repeats the first; ABA.
Theme and Variation form: consisting of a tune (theme) plus a number of variations of it.
Sonata form: developed by the classical composers and used in almost all the first movements of their
symphonies, sonatas.
Exposition: primary/main theme
Primary (tonic) key (tonic)
Secondary theme
Secondary key (other than tonic)
Coda: The concluding sections of a piece or a movement, after the main elements of the form have been
Sequence: In a melody, a series of fragments (short musical motive) identical except for their placement
at successfully higher or lower pitch levels.
Cadenza: an improvised passage for the soloist in a concerto, or sometimes, in other works. Concerto ca-
denzas come near end of movement where soloists play completely alone.
Staccato: with each note sharply separated from the other. Small dots over notes.
Legato: smooth, flowing manner without breaks between. Short horizontal lines over notes.
Lyrical: melody, melodic line with lyrics. Memorable appeal to the wider audiences
Motive/ motivic development: a short fragment of melody or rhythm used in constructing a long section
of music.
Theme/ thematic development: the basic subject matter of a piece of music. Theme can be a phrase, a
short motive, a full tune.
Opus:workopus number: provide a means of cataloguing a composers compositions.
Virtuoso/ virtuosity: a person highly skilled in music, in IMPROVISING.
Romantic Period (1800-1900+):
Nationalism: when a composer creates/celebrates his own national identity. Example: Chopin has Polish
nationalist work that appealed to Parisian audiences taste for exoticism.
Exoticism: when a composer depicts a foreign country. Example: Parisians love Chopins polish music
and Madaina Buttafly
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