Nur1 422: research in nursing midterm: 2 paradigms, positivist (logical) paradigm one objective reality exists out there and is waiting to be discovered. Quantitative methods: naturalistic (constructivist) paradigm there are many truths as we socially construct reality and different people have different perceptions and experiences. Researcher independence: researcher is intimately involved; results are subjective. Most often used in exploratory research designs: quantitative research: Purpose: test hypotheses or specific research questions. Data collection methods: structured, response categories provided. Researcher independence: researcher is uninvolved; results are objective. Most often used in causal research designs: nursing research: A systematic process that uses rigorous guidelines to answer questions about nursing practice. Scientific investigation of phenomena related to nursing. Purpose: to provide empirical evidence to support nursing practice, which in turn ultimately affects the care we provide to our patients: research utilization: Translating empirically based knowledge into real-world applications: evidence-based nursing practice: Clinical knowledge/experience/anecdotes/case histories/expert opinion: pyramid: levels of evidence.