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PHGY 210 Study Guide - Aortic Arch, Vascular Resistance, Vasoconstriction

Course Code
PHGY 210
Ann Wechsler

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Functions of the cardiovascular system:
- Bringing fuel to cells
- Bringing oxygen to cells
- Removal of waste products
- Circulation of hormones
- Ciriculation of immune cells and antibodies
- Regulation of electrolytes
- Regulation of pH
- Water balance¸, osmoregulation, thermoregulation
- …
Different types of cardiovascular system:
Insects Piscine Amphibians
and reptiles
Mammals and
Type of
Open circulation
The blood is not
always in the
Closed, single-
loop circulation
Closed , double-
loop circulation
Closed, double-
loop circulation
2 types of
pulmonary and
Number of
- 1 1 new and old
blood mix in the
Number of
- 1 2 2
Total number
of chambers
- 2 3 4 (2 hearts
separated by
Series and parallels:
- The systemic and pulmonary circulations are in series with one another.
- Within the systemic circulation there is a parallel system that brings blood to all organs
in the body.
Where is the blood?
- Veins and venules: 61%
- Pulmonary circulation: 12%
- Arteries: 11%
- Heart: 9%
- Arterioles and capillaries: 7%
Note: arterial system = resistance; venous system = capitance
Stephen Hales (1733):
- First measurement of arterial blood pressure
- He stuck a glass tube in the artery of a horse and measured blood pressure according to
the height of the blood column.
- Blood stops going up when it gets to equilibrium with atmospheric pressure.
- Results:

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o2m of blood = 200cm of H2O = 14,2cmHg = 142mmHg
- We now measure central VENOUS pressure with a catheter that we insert in one of the
two jugular veins so that it gets in the right atrium.
- We can also use the observation of the jugular vein to figure out the central venous
Anatomy of the heart:
Be able to locate
The four chambers:
- Left atrium
- Right atrium
- Left ventricle
- Right ventricle
The walls:
- Left ventricular free
wall ( thick)
- Right ventricular free
- Interventricular
- Interatrial septum
The great vessels:
- Right and left pulmonary arteries
- Right and left pulmonary veins
- Superior and inferior vena cava
- Pulmonary trunk
- Aorta
Cardiac valves (see table):
- Mitral (bicuspid) valve
- Aortic valve
- Tricuspid valve
- Pulmonic valve
Cardiac tissues:
- Chordae tendinae:
oFibrous tissue
- Papillary muscle:
oPulls down on the chordae tendinae to prevent blood to flow from ventricles to
- Endocardium (endothelium):
oSmooth layer of cells similar to those in blood vessels
- Myocardium:
oMuscle cells responsible for contraction of the heart
- Epicardium:
- Pericardial fluid (space):
oLubricates to allow movement
- Pericardium:

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oSac that surrounds the heart.
Summary of the cardiovascular system and circulation
Electrical system of the heart:
SA (sinoatrial) node:
- Only area in the heart capable of
spontaneous activity
- A single cell from the SA node can still
AV (atrioventricular) node:
- Only bit of muscle that connects atria and
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