Qinq dynasty : (1644-1911)
founded by the Manchus, they invaded the Ming Empire.
=> international challenges
previous chapters = late developers emphasis on developement for britain,
France, Germany, Russia,
• scarce capital to fuel economic growth, British liberalism's translated intro
strategic investment in France
• State sponsorshop in Germany
• Total state control under the name of communism in russia.
Following this logic, China should follow a development strategy
difference between the Kyomintang ( KMT) nationalist regime, 1928-1949 and
the People's republic of China (PRC) in 1949 and has rules the country since
_The KMT opted for the German model
_The chinese communist party (CCP) opted for the Soviet model.
the KMT and the CCP represented two different interests: nationalist
authoritarian and communist totalitarian regimes
Mao Zedong : post-1949 => totalitarism
Xiaoping and Jintao : rapid economic and political reform
KMT in Taiwan: less turbulent more linear development toward western liberal
pressured them to cooperate with the market when the state proved ineffective at
shift away from collectivism thanks to markets and private property easier in
Taiwan because of their dependency to the US.
patriarchal social structure and absoluist-monarchical political institutions
unchanged from the Han dynasty (206 BC)
confucianism arnound 500 b.c.technological innovations and successful human
organisation made it possible for the chine dynasties to expand into great
empires that dominated neighboring nations in east asia.
up until the Yuan Dynasty when china and mangol rules, the chinese kingdom
was the envy of many europeans.
challenge at the arrival of westerners in the mid-nineteenth century in the middle
of the Quig (or the Manchu) dynasty.
the quing emperors were not rulers but neither were they weak to be
They could not come with a response to the challenge posed by the west. =>
_the Manchu Dynasty was overthrown in 1911 by a revolutionary movement led
by Sun Yat-Sen. the ROC was then founded. (republic of china)
Sun wanted to transform china into a modern, democratic and affluent country
that could repel foreign invasion and offer the chinese people a decent life. =>
inspired by the western model's liberal democracy
Yuan Shikai attempted to restore imperial rule and make himself emperor. but
Sun prevented him from doing so, he swore to protect the new republic.
the ROC: (republic of China)
founded in 1912 by Sun yat sen. suffered warlord politics and did not reach
political unification until the Northern Expeditions (1925-1928) led by Chiang kai-
shek. after the communists defeated the nationalist in the chinese civil war. the
ROC was moved to taiwan from 1980's to 1990's
yuan's death in 1916 : china split into warring territories controlled by warlords :
• Zhang Zuolin in manchuria and northern china.
• Wu peifu in the yangtzu area.
• Sun chuanfand in the southeast provinces.
sun established the KMT in 1919. (expecting to rely on the support of china's
sought soviet support from his base in the southern province of guangdong,
accepted moscow's advice to establish the whampoa military academy (WMA)
=> Three principles of the people : kind of democratic socialism
Chiang Kai-Shek :
commander of the academy (WMA) and charged with producing a highly
indoctrinated revolutionary army for the KMT.
the KMT opted for a non liberal strategy in state-building. but the preference for
the soviet or german model was still unclear.
_chiang succeeded in building a revolutionary army committed to sun's ideas but
only with heavy infiltration by the communists who followed an order from
Moscow to join sun's KMT and develop the CCP's infulence inside the KMT
appartus and military establishment.
_Sun died in 1925 leaving the KMT very divided.
_chiang purged the communists in territories under his control.
_the communists were then forced out the the KMT and began organizing
peasant riots against Chiang's government
_Chiang was however able to supress the communist uprisings, subjuagate the
left wing KMT and complete his conquest of northern china.
nationalist government established in Nanjing, (the capital) => unified country
_the communists became rebels in the "soviet regions" => a chinese soviet
republic was established in Jiangxi province 1934: the communists main base in Jiangxi was attacked by the KMT army : the
1928-1936: the golden years of KMT's rule in China.
• industry grew
• commerce expanded
• foreign trade surged
China would've had a different future if not for the japanese invasion
communists were able to appeal to nationalism throughout their effort
december 1936: Chiang was kidnapped by the Manchurians, the nationalist
government was then focused on keeping the Japanese out instead of mopping
up the communists.
july 1937: japan launched an attack on the chinese army guarding peking (
beijng) => 8 year war.
Japan : powerful war machine ≠ china : poorly equipped army
Chiang's strategy : trade space for time
the KMT army was able to hold its defense line, while the CCP found great
opportunities to expand in rural China which the japanese failed to penetrate.
at the end of the war the communists were in control of north China, and
Manchuria ( with the help of soviets)
the nationalists government had no power to fight the communists after 8 year of
oct 1 1949: the PRC (people's republic of China) was formally established in
Beijing , while the ROC migrated to Taiwan.
=> there has been no peace treaty between china and taiwan since then.
chen Yun :
• important leader in the chinese communist party
• popular and powerful during the first 5 year plan ( 1953-1957) and the
"adjustment" after Mao's "great leap forward"
• he was a worker with no formal education when he joined the communist
• after the founding of the PRC he became the most important cade in charge of
• purged during the cultural revolution but was rehabilitated when deng xiaoping
came to power in 1979
• after 1983, he insisted on a birdcage economy : the market should be given
somewhat of a free hand
• he represented the pro stability technocrats
Chiang Ching-Kuo :
• son of Kai-shek.
• sympathetic to the communist cause young (spent 12 year with the soviet union)
• he was kept as a hostage by stalin because of his father's anticommunism,
• after his return in 1937, Ching-kuo led taiwan through the turbulent 1970, when
the ROC faced international isolation and global economic recession.
• towards the end of his rule, he initiated political reforms and lifted martial law in
• he died in 1988.
Chiang Kai-Shek :
• the KMT supreme leader who succeeded dr. Sun Yat-sen in 1926
• led the northern expedition to unify china in 1926 and purged the communists
from the KMT
• forced to stop his annhihilation against the communists after the Xi'an incident
in 1936 when he was kidnapped
• he led china's resistance war against the japanese to victory but was def