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Political Science
POLI 227
Rex Brynen

Chapter One—The Challenge of Third World Development § LDCs: less developed countries § NICs: newly industrializing countries § HDI: human development index (best single measure of a nation’s quality of life) § Many of the issues concerning countries such as Afg hanistan [religious intolerance], Colombia [poverty and revolutionary conflict], Iraq/Nigeria [ethnically based massacres], and Zimbabwe/Burma [political repression] are present in industrialized democracies but in a milder form § Developing nations (areas) is the term used by political scientists § Third World countries is the label most frequently used [this term is imprecise] o Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Latin America and the Caribbean that do not belong to the First World o 3 world includes non-European communist nations such as China, Cuba, and Vietnam, which resemble other developing nations on many dimensions Countries fall under its banner not because of any specific quality, but simply because they are not members of either the First World or Second world. rd 3 world commonalities: the nature of underdevelopment Despite their differences, 3 world countries share a number of common characteristics § They all suffer from some aspects of political, economic or social underdevelopment o South Korea/Singapore/Taiwan are no longer economically underdeveloped, they still share a high vulnerability to global economic forces and continue to suffer from political underdevelopment Economic Underdevelopment § Poverty is the biggest characteristic for some countries § National level; this is manifested by some combination of low GDP [gross domestic product] per capital [a measure of per-capita income], highly unequal income distribution, poor infrastructure [including communications and transportation], limited use of modern technology, and low consumption of energy § Grassroots level; economic underdevelopment connotes widespread scarcity, substantial unemployment, substandard housing, poor health conditions, and inadequate nutrition § GDP is a measure similar to GNP (gross national product) – the indicator most frequently used in the US – but it excludes “net factor income from abroad”. § Per-capita income refers to GDP per capita based on parity purchasing power (PPP). This is a measure of economic production per person, statistically adjusted to each country’s cost of living. PPP adjustments allow a more meaningful comparison of what per-capita incomes in different countries can actually purchase § In 2008, the World Bank estimated that 3.14 billion people in the LDCs lived in poverty § It is believed that income is more equitably distributed in economically advanced nations than in LDCs. Exception: the poor in the US live better than most people in LDCs, yet the gap between rich and poor is greater in the US than in countries such as Ethiopia, Egypt and India. § A positive correlation between two measures means that as one factor goes up, the other factor generally does as well § A negative correlation means that as one factor rises, the other one declines Social Underdevelopment 3 world poverty tends to correlate with poor social conditions such as high infant mortality and low literacy rates, which in turn narrow opportunities for human development in other areas. In order to modernize and develop economically, they must improve their educational systems. This would result in: § More trained professionals § Higher labor productivity § Increase political participation § Greater government accountability [See table 1.3; page 10] § Since 1960, life expectancy in the 3 world has increased impressively following a number of national and international campaigns against infectious diseases, improved sanitary conditions and other advances § Life expectancy and literacy are particularly valuable indicators of development as they are not distorted by skewed distribution (unlike per-capita income) § Despite economic decline in Africa, Latin America, East Asia, 3 rdworld has enjoyed considerable social development in the past 40-50 years o Example: adult illiteracy is almost 2/3 below its 1965 rate, falli ng from 59% to about 21%. Improved health care and sanitation have helped reduce infant mortality rates by 60%. This in turn helped raise life expectancy from 53.4 yrs in 1960 to some 65 yrs today § UNDP: united nations development programme [See table 1.4; page 13; reveals the substantial socioeconomic differences between 3 rdworld regions] § East Asia is the world’s fastest-growing regional economy Political Underdevelopment Political development involves: § Creation of specialized and differentiated government institutions that carry out different functions o Collecting tax revenues o Defending national borders o Maintaining political stability o Stimulating economic development o Improving the quality of human life o Communicating with the citizenry Any government satisfying these standards would enjoy a reasonable level of legitimacy, encouraging individuals and groups to pursue their political objectives peacefully through established political institutions rather than through violent or illegal channels. Accepted definitions of full democracy: honest and competitive elections in which opposition parties have a realistic chance of winning; universal or nearly universal adult suffrage; widespread opportunities for political participation; free and open mass media; and go vernment respect for human rights, including minority rights. Some relationships between the Components of Development § Responsive and legitimate governments, constrained by competitive elections, are more likely to educate their citizens and to make informed economic decisions § Bord economic and social development tend to correlate with political development § 3 world countries are not likely to become democracies or to maintain democracy unless they have reached a minimal threshold of socioeconomic development § Some scholars suggest that an authoritarian government might be helpful in the early to middle stages of industrialization in order to control labor unions and workers’ wages, thereby increasing company profits and attracting new external investments The Causes of Underdevelopment § MNCs: multinational corporations § IMF: international monetary fund § Causes are interpreted in different ways by scholars depending on their personal background, country of origin, ideology o Dependency theory & world systems theory which view Western exploitation as the root cause of 3 world underdevelopment, have been particularly popular among Latin American and African analysts § Dependency theory: originated in Latin America in the 1970’s and ofrdred radical perspective on development, one particularly popular among 3 world scholars Modernization Theory and the Importance of Cultural Values § Figures in comparative politics: Gabriel Almond, James Coleman, Samuel Huntington, Lucian Pye § Most 3 world nations follow a path of political and economic modernization parallel to the one first traveled by the advances Western countries. § Transforming traditional cultures was considered the first, and by most accounts, most crucial step in the modernization process § Max Weber and Talcott Parsons distinguished the difference between “traditional” and modern” values. They saw many traditional political and economic values as somewhat irrational, or at least unscientific. o Caste system: assigned people their rank in society at birth, a rank th at was difficult to change § Modernization theorists identified education, urbanization and the spread of mass media as central agents of change § Diffusion of modern ideas from highly indrdtrialized nations to the developing world and from city to countryside within the 3 world. At the same time, developing nations trying to modernize need to create more specialized and complex political and economic institutions to complement those cultural changes. o Example: tribal culture might have a council of elders responsible for legislative, executive and judicial activities; a modern society needs separate, specialized institutions for each of those tasks. Modernizing societies also need trained bureaucracies, which base professional advancement on merit rather than personal connections and make decisions according to uniform and consistent standards. § Analysts were particularly disturbed to find that the very process of social and economic modernization often ushered in political instability and violence. § Modernization theory’s initial optimism gave way to conflict theory. Developing nations, this new perspective argued, would have to make hard choices between seemingly irreconcilable development goals. § Democracy might have to take a backseat to stability, at least temporarily. Many economists and political scientists argues that the early stages of economic growth required wealth to be concentrated so that incipient capitalists could acquire sufficient capital for major investments. § Reconciliation approach offered by contemporary modernization theorists, maintains that, with the right policies, developing nations can simultaneously achieve goals previously thought to be incompatible. o Example: Taiwan and South Korea have shown that it is possible to achieve rapid economic development together with equitable income distribution § Major criticisms of modernization theory: culturally biased, assuming the superiority of Western values § 1 All modern or modernizing cultures are not identical nd § 2 Scholars now agree that the differences between traditional and modern cultures are not necessarily as stark or clear-cut as originally thought § 3 Now it appears that some traditional values contribute to political and economic development th rd § 4 while modern values have indeed swept across the 3 world, they have not been universally welcomes. o Example: Afghanistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia and other parts of the Muslim world have rejected Westernization in favor of Islamic fundamentalism Dependency theory: the core and the periphery § Under the banner of dependency theory, modernization was challenged on most fundamental assumptions. rd § Dependentistas rejected the contention that 3 world countries can follow the same path to development as western nations had, if only because the earliest industrialized nations changed the landscape for those that followed them § Countries borrow capital and purchase advanced technology from highly developed countries, thereby making them dependent on economic forces beyond their borders and beyond their control. § Western influence is seen as beneficial as it spreads modern values, technology, and institutions. In contrast, dependency theorists maintain that western colonialism and economic imperialism are precisely what first turned Africa, Asia, and Latin America into prostders of cheap food and raw materials for the developed countries. § Many 1 world nations have continued to use their economic power to sustain dependent relationships that disadvantage the 3 world § The most profitable economic activities along with major control over world finance remained primarily in the control of the core, the dependentistas label for the industrialized West (and japan). In the past, 3 world nations, located in the periphery, were generally relegated to the production and export of agriculture goods and raw materials and had to trade for industrial impords on unfavorable terms. § Within the periphery, the argument went, 3 political, military, and economic elites, backed by the might of the USA and other core nations, maintained a political system that benefited the powerful few at the expense of the many § Associated-dependent development: active intervention of the state and the linkage of domestic firms to MNCs, some developing countries had industrialized and experienc ed considerable economic growth. § Fernando Henrique Cardoso: argued that countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico could modernize and expand their economies while still remaining dependent on foreign banks and MNCs for loans, investment, and technology. Brazilian industrialization had been stimulated largely by a sharp rise in foreign, corporate investment. He considered associated-dependent development tainted for these reasons: o MNCs were making critical economic decisions affecting developi ng countries, but were outside the developing nations’ control. o Foreign corporations tended to invest in capital-intensive production that needed fewer workers than more traditional, labour-intensive firms did. o These industries tended to manufacture products for more affluent middle and upper-class consumers. They had little incentive to raise wage levels in order to enhance working-class purchasing power § Rather than reduce poverty, dependentistas maintained, associated -dependent development had widened the income gap Modernization and Dependency theories compared Dependency approach offered useful corrections to modernization theory. It also highlighted important influences over 3 world societies that the earlier theory often neglected: international trade, finance, investment. § Dependency theory shifted the focus of research from exclusively internal factors to international economic development heavily stressed the goal of economic growth; dependency theorists also emphasized the importance of more equitable economic distribution and greater social justice. § Despite its contribution, dependency theory suffered from serious failings. They emphasized internal causes of underdevelopment, dependentistas erroneously attributed virtually all of the 3 world’s problems to external economic factors [international trade, foreign investment, credit] § Cardoso refined dependency theory by insisting that the types of constraints imposed by core economies on the periphery varied from one developing nation to another. § The effects of external influences emanating from the core are mediated by conditions within each developing country o Example: a country’s class structure and the influence of particular classes on government policy shape the type of associated-dependent development it experiences. Contemporary Perspectives Countries that have the lowest levels of foreign investment and foreign trade tend to have the poorest record of economic development. There is considerable evidence that those developing nations that reduce barriers to free trade, such as tariffs tend to enjoy faster economic growth than countries that limit international trade. § Using cross-national data over time to analyze the effects of several indicators of dependency, including levels of foreign trade and aid, foreign investment and foreign debt. § Dependency theory literature rarely uses comparative data and statistical analysis to test its hypothesis. It often lacks any testable hypotheses that can be confirmed or disproved. § Postmodernists charge modernization theory with trying to impose its values on the 3 rd world § Hey favor “bottom-up” development based on the plans and desires of the underprivileged rather than “top-down” development projects designed by governments, international agencies, or NGOs (nongovernmental organizations). § Some say globalization has benefited only a small portion of the population and has further impoverished many others How much (or how little) progress has been made? [all statistics; page 28-29] § 3 world population living in absolute poverty has been dropping regularly for a number of yrs The Challenge of Third World Development: Chapter 2:Version 1 The Explosion of Third World Democracy Mohamed Bouazizi on December 17, 2010 set himself on fire to protest the harassm ent from the Tunisian police. This incident went viral because of the internet and cell phones. This incident led to protests in Tunisia. After 3 weeks of massive demonstrations, dictator Zine el- Abidine Ben Ali fled to Saudi Arabia. The Arab withstood the wave of democracy that swept over most of the developing world at the end of the 20 century. Throughout the Middle East and North Africa, power remained with the military men, authoritarian political parties or monarchies. Analysts believed that • Aspects of Arab culture inhibited democratic values • The distorting effects of excessive economic dependence on oil exports which has obstructed democracy in countries like Iran, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Russia and Venezuela. Middle Eastern dictators have all retained power through police and military oppression. Hosni Mubarak was a former military officer in Egypt that led a pro -western government characterized by political oppression, enormous corruption and a failure to alleviate the country’s poverty. A massive wave of demonstrations swept the country with a group of leaders consisting of 15 young professionals. All the members were diverse and it consisted of liberals and leftists. This groups stages “field tests” in Cairo slums before the demonstration. Slo wly Mubarak’s government lost support and the armed forces refused to use force on the protesters. After 18 days of demonstrations on February 11, 2011, Mubarak resigned from office. Common characteristics of the two democratic revolutions • Long term dictatorships that failed to address widespread unemployment and poverty • Extensive government corruption at the top • Opposition from either prodemocracy or Islamic political groups had been repressed • Young people who suffered from high unemployment rates formed the backbone of the protest movements • Young professionals found ways to use information technology to outwit the security forces to organize protest activity • Demonstrators were remarkably disciplined and non-violent • Military decisions to not use forces on the protesters were critical to the movements’ success Arab Spring • Protests across the Arab world in Bahrain, Yemen, Syria and Libya • Unlike in Egypt and Tunisia, armies in Bahrain, Yemen, Syria and Libya used force to quell the protesters How likely is it that this democratic surge will succeed in other Arab countries? • Countries like Egypt and Tunisia’s armed forces shower restraint against the protesters and used nonviolence. But in other countries, their armed forces did not use the same restraint. Several other factors have bolstered other governments. • 1) Arab monarchs have enjoyed considerable legitimacy particularly those that have introduced progressive reforms like the Kings of Morocco and Jordan and the Sultan of Oman • 2) Some regimes have such a repressive grip on society that it is more difficult for any opposition movement to win or even get off the ground. Regimes like Syria, Saudi Arabia and non-Arab Iran. It is very difficult to determine or not if revolts lead to democracy. The revolts in Egypt and Tunisia resulted in a transitional military rule, led by the same commanders who were the anchors of the previous regimes. In Egypt, the ruling generals make decisions in secrecy with no outside scrutiny. Ongoing demonstrations have forced Egypt’s transitional governments to pass a number of reforms and to remove some of the hated civilian officials. The alliance created between liberal democrats and Islamists (Muslin Fundamentalists) to bring down Mubarak started to unravel. st The early years of the 21 Century have been difficult for a number of former dictators and quasi dictators throughout the developing world. • Yugoslavia – Slobodan Milosevic • Chile – Augusto Pinochet • Argentina – Jorge Videla • Indonesia – General Suharto • Peru – Alberto Fujimori • Iraq – Saddam Hussein • Sudan – Omar al-Bashir • Libya – Muammar Qaddafi • Liberia – Charles Taylor The UN affiliated International Criminal Court (ICC) was established to prosecute individuals for war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. The treaty establishing the court has been signed by 148 nations but not the U.S, China, India and Russia. With the liberation of Nelson Mandela, it ended the white minority rule in South Africa. It created a “second independence” – a wave of Political Liberalization – (easing of repression) that has often led to either electoral or liberal democracy. In the Philippines Corazon Aquino, leader of the “people’s power” took power and forced Ferdinand Marcos to step down from power. It inspired South Korean students to lead demonstrations against the military regime. In Indonesia, the “people’s power” demonstrations toppled the 30 year dictatorship of President Suharto. The most sweeping democratic change happened in Latin America. Most countries in Latin America had authoritarian regimes and only a few did not. Democratic Transitions – often grew out of extended negotiations between authoritarian government and opposition leaders, culminated by a relatively peaceful, gradual transfer of power. Latin America enjoyed 2 important advantages over Africa and Asia • 1) Prior to its surge of military takeovers in 1960s and 1970s, the region had enjoyed the Third World’s strongest democratic tradition. • 2) Latin American countries were among the first LDCs to achieve the levels of literacy and economic development that are generally associated with stable democratic government Latin Americas democratic wave has been more sweeping and more successful than elsewhere in the developing world, ultimately affecting virtually every country in the hemisphere. Democratic demonstrations have not been successful in all countries. In China, army tanks crushed demonstrations in Tiananmen Square which quelled any more democratic movements in China. The increase in political freedom coupled with the breakdown of communism in the soviet bloc has produced history’s greatest democratic transition. By the end of the 20 thcentury, democratization has largely ended by a lot of the new democracies endured. Democracy Defined The definition of a democracy is a political system that holds fair, contested elections on a regular basis, with universal (or near universal) adult suffrage. Electoral democracies – Countries that only meet the minimal standard Semi democracies – electoral democracies whose governments regularly repress civil liberties and breach the principles of a free society. Liberal Democracy – a political system that conforms to the following conditions • Most of the country’s leading government officials are elected • There is universal or near universal suffrage • Elections are largely free of fraud and outside manipulation • Opposition party candidates have a realistic chance of being elected to important national offices • Civil liberties – including minority rights are respected, with guarantees of free speech, free assembly, free press and freedom of religion Liberal democracies also include the • Rule of law • Civilian command over the armed forces • A vigorous civil society Civil Society – the array of voluntary organizations – including churches, unions, business groups, farmers’ organizations and women’s groups – whose members often influence the political system but are free of government control. This definition suggests that competitive elections mean little in unel ected officials or groups who are nor accountable to the public direct elected officials from behind the scenes. Free elections do not bring full democracy elected officials violate their citizens’ civil liberties or arbitrarily arrest opposition leaders. Some scholars argue you that real democracy not only requires fair elections and proper government procedures but also fair and just government policy outcomes. This is called Substantive Democracy Substantive democracy requires that citizens have • Relatively equal access to public schooling and health care regardless of their social class and ethnicity • Any procedural democracy such as Pakistan or Brazil that tolerates gross economic inequalities, ethnic prejudice, or other social injustices is not truly democratic Procedural democracy does not guarantee a just society but it is a step in the right direction. Since governments in procedural democracies are accountable to the people, they are • Less vulnerable to revolution and other forms of civil unrest • Extremely unlikely to make war against other democracies • Prodded by a free press and public opinion, they are more responsive to domestic crises such as famines • While some have violated their critics’ civil liberties, most respect their citizens’ rights Democratic Transition and Consolidation Democratic Transition – the process of moving from an authoritarian to a democratic regime • The transition period begins when an authoritarian government shows the first observable signs of collapsing or of negotiating its departure from power • The transition ends when the first freely elected government takes office Democratic Consolidation – When democratic institutions, practices, and values have become deeply ingrained in society. This consolidation is a process through which democratic norms become accepted by all politically influential groups in society – including • Business groups • Labor unions • Rural landlords • Professionals • Church • Military And no important political actor contemplates a return to dictatorshi p. Consolidation may only begin after the democratic transition ends and is completed only when democracy is securely entrenched. Even though there are many successful democracies, there have also been failed democracies. There are successful consolidated democracies like Taiwan, South Korea and Uruguay; democratic values predominate among politically relevant individuals and groups. Authoritarian Beginnings Even though many countries tried to set up democracy, many democracies end up falling to monarchies, dictatorships and authoritarian rule. Middle Eastern nations generally have been ruled by monarchs or dictatorships. Justifying Authoritarian Rule Dependency theorists declared that democracy was unlikely to emerge in LDCs because of powerful industrialized nations and multinational corporations had allied with Third World elites to bolster unrepresentative governments Other scholars worried that the levels of mass political participation in democratic or semi democratic states were often exceeding their governments’ capacity to accommodate all the new political demands. Unless Third World political institutions were strengthened, political unrest threatened to derail economic and political development. Many Third World leaders argue that democracy is not right for countries in the early stages of economic and social development. Many military dictators take power because they claim that civilian leaders were too corrupt and too weak to govern efficiently. In Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea, the governments’ claim that their dictatorships were needed to ward off external threats. The Third Wave and Its Effect on the Third World • First democratic wave started in 1828-1926 was the longest and began under the influence of the American and French Revolutions (as well as the industrial revolution) and was brought to an end by the Great Depression. During this time, Democratization was largely confined to Europe and to former British colonies with primary European populations. • Second Democratic wave started in 1943-1962 and was precipitated by the struggle against fascism during World War II and the subsequent demise of European colonialism in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. In this wave, democratic governments emerged in a number of LDCs, though most of these only met the standard of electoral democracy (competitive elections). • Third democratic wave started from 1974-2011. The wave was most dramatic in the European and Central European communist bloc, which brought the Cold War to an end. Samuel Huntington states that the first 2 waves were followed by reverse waves, a change back to authoritarian rule. This has not happened following the Third Wave. International Causes and Consequences of the Third Wave A number of factors contributed to the Third Wave’s democratic transitions • The economic crises that devastated so many LDCs in the 1980s revealed that most authoritarian regimes were no more effective and no less corrupt than the elected governments that they have contemptuously swept aside. • Since dictatorships lack the legitimacy that free elections bestow on democratic governments, their support depends much more heavily on satisfactory job performance. • By contrast Asian countries like South Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan and Singapore, they enjoyed spectacular economic success but there was a burgeoning middle class that had both democratic aspirations and the political skills to pursue them. As the number of politically informed citizens grew, they increasingly resented government repression, state corruption and the lack of meaningful political participation. Throughout the world, no sooner had democratic upheavals occurred in one nation, they quickly spread to neighboring countries. The perquisites of democracy in individual countries What determines whether or not a particular country embarks on the road to democracy, whether it completes the voyage successfully and whether it eventually consolidates democratic values, practices and institutions? • Social and Economic Modernization– Democracy is far more prevalent in industrialized countries than in poorer countries because industrialization leads to increases in wealth, education, communication, and equality. When all other factors are held constant, there is a strong correlation between the extent of a country’s mass communications and its degree of democracy. A free and active mass media and opportunities for students to exchange ideas promote a free society. Countries with higher per capita incomes are more likely to be democratic than poorer one s. This does not mean that a country becomes more democratic as their economies develop. Middle income countries are frequently less stable and more prone to dictatorships. • Class Structure – Economic development supports stable democracy only if it induce s appropriate changes in the country’s class structure. The middle class serves as a bridge between the upper and lower classes because it tends to be politically moderate. The members of the middle class also have the political and organizational skills n ecessary to create political parties and other important democratic institutions. An independent and influential business class (bourgeoisie) also seems essential for developing democracies. Barrington Moore Jr. identified 3 discrete paths to modernizati on, each shaped by the relative power of the state and strength of the major social classes. 1) Modernization was led by a strong state allied with a powerful and antidemocratic agricultural landowners and a bourgeoisie that was dependent on the state. This was personified by 19 and early 20 century Germany. These combinations resulted in Fascism and far right authoritarian regimes. 2) A highly centralized state, a repressive landowning class, a weak bourgeoisie and a large and eventually rebellious peasantry. The end result of this alignment was a communist revolution fought by the peasantry. This is seen in China. 3) A weaker state and a strong bourgeoisie class at odds with the rural landowning elite. This alignment of forces, distinguished by the bourgeoisie’s powerful and independent political roles, had led to liberal democracy. On the other hand scholars have argues that organized labor plays a role in building democracy. While the bourgeoisie and the middle class generally foster democracy in Western Europe, Latin America, and the Caribbean, those groups not only tended to favor restricted form of democratic government that enhances their own political strength but also limited the political influence of the lower class. • Political Culture – A nation’s democratic potential is also influenced by its political culture. That is, its cultural beliefs, norms, and values relating to politics. Some of the most important values needed to sustain democracy include 1) A belief that the vote and other forms of individual and group political participation are important and potentially productive 2) Trust in government institutions and in fellow citizens 3) Tolerance of opposition and dissenting political opinions and beliefs, even when those views are very unpopular 4) Accepting the outcome of free and fair elections as definitive, regardless of who wins 5) Viewing politics as a process that requires compromise 6) Rejecting violent political action or other circumvention of democratic institutions 7) Commitment to democracy as the best form of government, regardless of how well or poorly a particular democratic administration performs. • The Curse of Oil Wealth – It is expected that oil rich nations will democratize because of the economic growth brought by oil wealth. Instead, almost all countries whose exports and government revenues are dominated by petroleum have been unable to democratize. Oil rich counties are unable to democratize because 1) The petroleum industry in most oil rich developing nations is owned or largely controlled by the government. 2) The new oil wealth strengths the power of the state, providing funds for the military and police and funding large government bureaucracies that offer patronage jobs to government supporters. 3) Major, private sector firms are heavily dependent on the state for credit, licenses and the like. Thus these nations do not produce the independent bourgeoisie class. 4) The middle class also fails to challenge state power because so many of its members depend on job in the government bureaucracy. 5) With little industrialization, a large portion of the working class is employed in the oil industry, making them dependent on the state and renders them incapable of challenging state power. Oil dependent countries have particularly high rates of governme nt corruption. 1) Heavy concentration of economic power in the hands of the state 2) Clientelism 3) Capitalist and middle class dependency 4) Corruption These factors have all effectively impeded the growth of democracy in oil rich nations. How do Democracies Perform? Public Policy Compared Democracies outperformed authoritarian regimes in several important economic indicators. • Democratic economies were less volatile • More predictable • Paid better wages to workers • Could handle adverse shocks much better Democratic countries spent more on • Public education • Had higher school enrollments • Higher literacy rates • Greater public access to health care services. Democratic Consolidation Democracy is contagious. The more prevalent democratic government becomes in o ther counties, the more likely any particular Third World country is to sustain its own democracy, regardless of its per capita incomes, literacy rate or economic growth rate. Developing and maintaining effective political institutions, including represen tative and influential legislature, a strong but not unlimited executive branch, an honest and independent judicial branch are absolutely critical for sustaining stable and effective democracy. Improving the Quality of Democracy Evaluating the quality of democracy in terms of 7 dimensions Procedural Dimensions – The procedure used to elect the government officials and the procedures that public officials use to govern must be honest, fair, and equitable. These procedures can be divided into 4 categories. 1) Participation – All or nearly all adult citizens must have the right to vote as well as to participate in the political system in other ways. Powerful groups should not intimidate the poor or ethnic minorities from participating. A politically aware citizenry should not allow apathy to restrict their own participation. 2) Competition – There should be free and fair elections between competing political parties, and the incumbent party should not have any built in advantage in gaining access to state funds or to the media. The electoral system should not give any party a built in advantage. 3) Accountability – A democratic electoral system must guarantee that government officials are fairly elected. But officials must also be held accountable for their actions between elections. Vertical accountability refers to procedures that allow citizens or independent groups to challenge or criticize a government official’s behavior. Horizontal accountability refers to the ability of one government body to check the power of another branch, such as the Supreme Court overruling a decision made by the President or the Parliament removing a Prime Minster. 4) The Rule of Law – The legal system must apply equally to all citizens and all laws must be publicly known and clear. The judiciary must be neutral and independent. Substantive Dimensions – Beyond adhering to proper procedures, quality democracies must pursue policies that advance 1) Respect for Civil Liberties and the Pursuit of Freedom – This includes respect for individual liberty, security and privacy; freedom of information, expression and religion and due process. 2) Reductions in Political, Economic and Social inequalities - In order to attain political equality, where there is substantial social and economic inequality, government needs to reduce sharp incomes haps. Result Dimensions 1) Responsiveness – A democratically responsive government is one in which “the democratic process induces the government to form and implement policies that the people want.” In order to achieve that, there needs to be a stable political party system, with parties that offer coherent and distinguishable programs. Until injustices like unequal land and income distribution, pervasive poverty rising crime rates, inadequate public health services, corrupt police and judicial systems are addressed, democracy will remain incomplete and often precarious. Handelman--Ch.2 Democratization—Version 2 In 2002, the UN affiliated International Criminal Court was established to prosecute individuals for war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. This has seen this decade many warlords and authoritarians put on trial. In all, these trials and arrest warrants have established a new international standard of accountability for former dictators. They al so capped 3 decades of transitions from authoritarian to democratic government throughout the world. Numerous authoritarian regimes, particularly in the 3rd world, have fallen in the face of democratic movements. Most Westerners considered the demise of Soviet and Eastern European Communism democracy's most renowned triumph in this era. Also changes in the developing world, particularly with Mandela in S. Africa He and other freed black leaders eventually negotiated an end to White minority rule. Mande la's triumph accelerated Africa's second independence- a wave of political liberalization (easing of repression) that has often led to either electoral or liberal democracy. In Asia, wife of assassinated Filipino leader led the people’s power party- massive pro- democracy demonstrations. Soon after, student led demonstrations against S. Korea military regime. this accelerated transition to democracy. But most sweeping democratic changes took place in L. America, affecting almost every country in the region. Now only Cuba and Haiti have failed to establish functioning electoral democracies. Unlike Asia and Africa, L. America's democratization process generally lacked charismatic heroes in the mild of Mandela, Aquino, or Kyi. Nor did it typically heater mass demonstrations. Instead democratic transitions grew out of negotiations between the outgoing authoritarian government and opposition leaders. L. America enjoyed two important advantages over Africa and Asia. First, prior to its wave of military takeovers in 60s and 70s, the region had enjoyed the 3rd worlds strongest democratic tradition, most notably in Chile, Costa Rice, and Uruguay. Furthermore, Latin American countries were among the first LDCs to achieve the levels of literacy and economic development associated with stable democratic government. SOO this regions recent democratic wave has been more sweeping and successful than elsewhere in developing world. It affected basically every country in that hemisphere. Not all movements have been successful. In China army tanks crushed student demonstrations. This put the country’s democracy movement in check ever since. In 2009, massive street demonstrations for democracy have so far failed to dislodge Iran’s authoritarian govt. Democracy is measures by the transparency and fairness of the essential procedures governing the election and behavior of government officials. Some countries are by definition the simplest kind of democracies-electoral democracies, which just means fair, contested elections on a regular basis. Semi-democracies are countries where goats regularly repress civil liberties and breach the principles of a free society. Their elections may be relatively free and fair, but their societies are not. Such Semi-democracies include Malaysia, Nigeria, and Venezuela. A more stringent definition of "full" democracy involves more than competitive elections. It must conform to the following conditions: Most of the countries leading government officials are elected; there is universal or near universal suffrage; elections are largely free of fraud and outside manipulation; position-party candidates have a realistic chance of being elected to important national offices; and civil liberties- including minority rights are respected, with guarantees of free speech, free assembly, free press. also civilian command over the armed forces and vigorous civil society. Real democracy requires not only fair elections, but also fair government policy outcomes ("substantive democracy") for example citizens have relatively equal access to public school regardless of their social class or ethnicity. Transition Transition period begins when an authoritarian government shows the first observable signs of collapsing or of negotiating its departure from power. It ends when first freely elected government takes office. Democratic consolidation, when all democratic norms because accepted by all politically influential groups in society. Has to be the only game in town. Several internal factors that increased the likelihood that a new democracy would fail, including ethnic divisions and a failure to build strong political institutions. Unless 3rd world political institutions were strengthened, they warned, political unrest threatened to derail economic and political development. If socioeconomic modernization was necessary to establish democracy, what type of political system could bring about those necessary economic and social changes? Some social scientists believe that only a strong and stable authoritarian government could just start modernization, economic growth, and industrialization. Only later, others said, when a country was "ready" would dictatorships give way to democracy. so they argue only when nations developed a democratic political culture and modern social values could they hope to create stable democracies. The mid to late 1970s seemed a low water mark for democracy and the empirical trends were reified by intellectual fashions dismissing democracy as an artifice, a cultural construct of the West, or a "luxury" that poor states could not afford. Third wave of democracy and its effect on the third world…Unlike the first 2 waves, there was no enough counties reverting to authoritarian rule since the 1990s to label it a reverse wave. Analysts believe this 3rd wave is pretty much over. Several causes of this wave The economic crisis that devastated so many LDCs in the 1980s revealed that most authoritarian regimes were no more effective and no less corrupt that the elected governments that they had contemptuously swept aside years before. also dictatorships lack the legitimacy that free elections bestow on democratic goats. when authoritarian goats. dragged their country into war or economic decay their support eroded. The prerequisite of democracy in individual countries What are differences between those 3rd world countries that seized the opportunities to democratize versus those that alternated between authoritarianism and weak democracy, historical, structural, and cultural variables. Social and Economic Modernization Industrialization leads to increases in wealth, education, communication and equality; (not sure about the last one) these development are associated with a more moderate lower and upper class and a larger middle class, which is by nature moderate; and this in turn increases the probability of stable democratic forms of politics. it has been found that there is a strong correlation between the extent of a countries mass communications and its degree of democracy, stronger even than the correlation between economic development and democracy. A free and active mass media very important also correlates strongly with higher levels of literacy and education. Middle-income countries can actually be less stable and more prone to dictatorship. This is visible in Argentina and Brazil. As the 3rd wave of democracy has spread to further reaches of the developing world, the correlation between economic development and democracy has weakened somewhat. Others say that class structure is what induces and sustains democracy. Since Aristotle, political theorists have linked democracy and political stability to the presence of a large and vibrant middle class. PAGE 42- really in depth but could be important Summary- democracy tends to flourish best where economic modernization produces a politically influential and independent bourgeoisie/middle class and where labor unions effectively defend the interests of the working class. when any of those classes are small, weak, or politically dependent on authoritarian actors, such as rural landowners, democracy is less likely to emerge. Political culture Neither a country’s level of socioeconomic development nor its class structure can fully explain whether or not it has been able to create or sustain democracy. During the early decades of the 20th century, Argentina was one of the most affluent nations on earth with substantial middle and working classes. Yet the country failed to develop into a liberal democracy. Instead it embarked on a half-century of recurring coups and military dictatorships. Even Singapore, S. Korea, and Taiwan retained authoritarian governments for many years after they had reached the normal social and economic thresholds for democracy. Many scholars argue that aside from its level of economic development and its class structure, a nations democratic potential is also influenced by its political culture. A countries constitution may call for contested elections, a free press, and the separation of powers, but unless t he people, especially elites and political activists, value these objectives, constitutional protections are unlikely to have great weight. * All political systems eventually confront major crises such as economic decline, ethnic violence, or political stalemate. At those times, many political leaders in unconsolidated democracies are tempted to seek authoritarian solutions such as imposing martial law or restricting civil liberties. If however, a broad segment of the population shares democratic values, democracy can survive the crisis intact. Developing a democratic culture is a gradual process in which socioeconomic modernization and political development need to reinforce each other. In general countries that experienced British colonial rule were significantly more likely to maintain democracy after independence than other European colonizers. External intervention has had a mixed record of success. How political culture influences political system: - Communities with high levels of mutual tolerance and a politically informed population are more hospitable to democracy than are less tolerant societies. But how fixed in a nations psyche are such values? Is there something inherently more democratic or more authoritarian about Norwegian, French or Chinese cultures? Are some religions or philosophies such as Christianity more conducive to democracy than others? Predominantly Christian nations, particularly, Protestant ones are the most likely to be democratic, even when other casual factors are held constant. Some maintain that Islamic beliefs do not readily support democratic institutions because they fail to separate religion and politics. but still it is not fair to say that religions lead necessarily to a political culture. Many first time democracies lack a healthy democratic political culture. In countries such as Russia this has helped cut short democracy in its infancy. The curse of oil wealth We would expect if oil wealth bring economic growth it would also increase the probability of a transition to democracy. Instead almost all countries whose exports and government revenues are dominated by petroleum have been woefully unable to democratize. Why--because petroleum industry in most oil rich developing countries is owned or largely controlled by the government, the new oil wealth strengthens the power of the state, providing funds for the military and police and funding large govt. bureaucracies that offer patronage jobs to govt. supporters. Independent bourgeoisie historically crucial for democracy. With little industrialization a large portion of the working class is employed in the oil industry, making them dependent on the state and, like the middle class and bourgeoisie, incapable of challenging state power. Armed with substantial oil and gas revenues, petroleum states can lower taxes and offer private companies and the general public inexpensive services and goods. The consequences of this is that people become clients and not citizens. Wards of the state who are not active in the political system. How have democracies performed? Democratic nations as a group grew faster that the autocracies. Also citizens of democracies live longer healthier lives. Above 6000 democracies are impregnable and can be expected to live forever, forev er ever. Democracy is less likely to survive in countries suffering economic decline, high inflation rates, or other forms of economics crisis. Authors discovered that international political conditions exert a more powerful influence on democratic survivability. DEMOCRACY IS CONTAGIOUS Clapham – Third World Politics (pg 39-60) The transfer of power from the colonizing powers to the decolonized entities has been the cause of slow nation building and development. The developing state is distinguished by the combination of its power and fragility. A developing state has a control structure, or top down structure, because he state and society have not emerged together, and are not connected, in other words there is a ‘lack of organic unity or shared values. Fragility is the weakness of legitimacy, and in turn the absence of legitimacy increases governmental insecurity. Therefore the lack of value consensus threatens the state’s survival. The government in power is determined to cling on by their growing depe ndence on the comforts of office and the fear of their opponents’’ retaliation should they come into power. As a simple means of extraction and control the state is superimposed as a prize for political competition, and as a way in which those who that competition can serve their ambitions and suppress their opponents. A third element is competition for control over the state being extended to include parts of the state itself among the competitors. Rulers who are feared little by the population will easil y be toppled by a military coup. When the state is the most powerful source of organized political influence, government of the state by the state and for the state becomes very probable, and even rulers who were not directed for power may well fall into these ranks as it is the easiest and least risky way of running the government. This raises political management problems both within the state bureaucracy and within the civil circles and military ones. One reason for the third world state’s inability to develop into a totalitarian structure of control is how easily it is infiltrated by its society. The colonial state was not so easily penetrated because it was alien. They governed through the influence of indigenous local rulers, clerks, policemen etc. Civil servants became part of the indigenous political process and wee identifiable by their class or regional group. They sometimes turned themselves into political spokesmen, especially during military governments when ordinary means of political expression were withdrawn. In the process the boundary between state and society became blurred, making the state itself less coherent. There was no merging of state and society in terms of shared values. The division between indigenous society and external political structure was left in Africa and Asia by the colonizers. Even in non-colonized states such as Thailand or Ethiopia the state is associated with a core national community, imposing its role on surrounding areas inhabited by other peoples. ‘The lack of organic unity or shared values between state and society […] is the single most basic reason for the fragility of the third world state.’ This is fragility in the sense of legitimacy of forms of selecting and sustaining political leaders. Personal and political corruption shows the lack of public values. The combination of this fragility with the uncontrolled power of a leader characterizes third world politics. If the state does not work according to the western model, how does it work? Not simply by force, though that is effective. How could it work? It could work through the consolidation of leadership, management of domestic political relationships, and the economy. The organization of the modern states rest on rational-legal authority, whose basis is individuals in public positions exercising power in accordance with legally defined structured aimed at a publicly defined goal. For these structures to work there must be a division between public and private roles. This is an ‘office’ where officials implement there authority within its boundaries. Delegation of responsibilities works in a patrimonial system, but can complicate things when imposed on a bureaucratic state. Neo-patrimonialism is present in third world state and elsewhere. The human ten dency to distinguish between private and official self corresponds to the normal forms of pre -colonial social organization. Neo-patrimonialism characterizes tribal societies whose loyalty to one’s kin group is the main social value and plural societies such as immigrant states of the new world. The USA, under a modern state façade, has a caste-like social hierarchy and are obvious in the behavior of the non-elite majority. The artificiality of national communities and the incorporation of the society into a global economy help corrode common values, indirectly encouraging neo-patrimonialism. Third world corruption is often blamed on the presence of cultural values from a patrimonial past in present day political behavior. Gift giving is traditional in court or when a chief visits a village, as a recognition and not bribe, and not doing so is seen as an insult. This carries over to the patrimonial system, in which it is considered to be bribery or extortion. Mutual support amongst family or village members similarly translates into nepotism in the patrimonial system, and this support can be used to have a considerable influence on the state. ‘The weakness of accountability by the governors to the governed’ is key in the structure of the third world state. This is due to the social distance between the elite who are western-educated, have well-paid modern sector jobs and live in residential areas, and the non -elite majority. Another cause is the ‘enormous and institutionalized inequality of power’, which is hie rarchical and uncontrolled by countervailing powers. Low-level government officials are paid little and so collect from their subjects, while higher-level officials feel they deserve ostentatious life styles and so require bribery or other types of private profit. Military regimes usually take power through the ideas of honesty and efficiency but these don’t last long in government. Military govern through the same systems as civilian bureaucrats and politicians, and benefit from the same structural inequalities. External connections of the third world state create opportunities for more subtle corruption, through government contracts, concession agreements, supplier’s credits etc. ‘A regime with a shaky domestic political base may survive through the support of external powers’ to exploit its own people. Parochial corruption is small-scale and fits into an existing set of values and obligations, leading to the redistribution/exchange within a community. Extractive corruption is large-scale and requires the manipulation of state power, maintaining the life style of a privileged class of state employees and their confederates. Petty corruption maybe ascribed to indigenous values that are harmless and even helpful in maintaining some solidarity, but the weight of corruption is the means for people into power to get money. It is ‘the failure to link society and government in a shared sense of values.’ The main political difficulty of third world rulers is extending their support beyond immediate group of courtiers, sometimes to ensure their protection against treason. For example Edi Amin’s bodyguard was sustained by a weekly airlift of luxuries from the United Kingdom. A successful coup d’état, often launched by small forces, shows that no one outside the leader’s entourage is prepared to preserve the regime. If a regime is to seek support, the initial boost of anticolonial nationalism does not sustain itself for long. The ruling class of European states is so well established that class solidarity is pointless. Clientelist organization is characteristic of competitive party systems and is often used right before independence when rival parties struggle to control the state. These same attitudes to politics usually survive into the post-independence period. It commonly works like this: political party leaders at the national level search for local leaders who are supported in their areas, offering them a place
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