o Society is defined by a set of norms.
o Identity formation through socialization and imitation. Think about how this compares
to the tit-for-tat problem/prisoners dilemma (this is a game with strategic calculations,
whereas socialization is not). How would this explain the advent of nuclear weapons and
their spread?*Exam Q
Realist would say: security dilemma, I get weapons, you get weapons, I get
more, you get more…
Liberalism would say: Weapons create a situation of parody between nations
and this would work as an incentive to co-operate.
Constructivism would say: weapons become a norm, there is a shared
understanding of what defines a powerful nation and nuclear weapons become
symbolic of a state’s status. They are all just copying each other/imitation.
(which may be a vast oversimplification, but that is constructivism)
Problem when people do not copy each other
o Legitimacy and cooperation:
International organizations: non state actors that can shape the system and lead
states to act in a certain way.
They consider an enforcement mechanism that is voluntary. Legitimacy explains
the durability of international institutions
Managerial school of constructionism try to explain issues of defection.
(Problem: set of shared norms that we all agree on, yet clearly there