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POLI 360 - Midterm Review

11 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
POLI 360

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Buzan and HansenThe Evolution of International Security StudiesFour questions structure ISS1Whether to privilege the state as the referent object2Whether to include internal as well as external threats3Whether to expand security beyond the military sector and the use of force4Whether to see security as inextricably tied to a dynamic of threats dangers and urgencyBaylis and WirtzIntroduction in Strategy in the Contemporary WorldStrategy is the bridge between military means and political ends and therefore requires knowledge of both politics and military operations It is best studied from an interdisciplinary perspective AssumptionsHuman nature pessimistic HobbesianAnarchic system struggle for powerpessimistic on international law morality and institutions Criticisms against itdisregard for moral dimensionspaid advise to governments and policy advocacy are not part of scholarshipmay be part of the problem rather than a part of the solution taking their advice leads to a spiral of hostilities FreedmanWarLuttwak all strategy is pervaded by a paradoxical logic si vis pacem para bellum make nuclear weapons never use them defence is to be aggressiveBelieves that this means strategic studies should abandon influence of commonsense logicHoward differentiates between logistical and operational dimensions of war in attrition logistical industrial ability etc is more important than operational all other factions being equal numbers ultimately proved decisiveTo this Howard adds the social and technological dimensions Argues that technology had not in fact transformed the nature of strategy that those who place too much faith in technology will suffer ahem USSchelling strategic studies necessitates the assumption of rational behaviour If there is a possibility of avoiding mutually assured destruction then possibility of mutual accommodation is as important as conflict This is not application of force but exploitation of potential force To study strategy also means to view conflict situations as bargaining situations with the caveat that there is a common interest to avoid an enormously destructive outcome to both sides Strategic theory degenerates if there is no possibility for mutual accommodation or no common interest in avoiding mutual disaster Clausewitz war is the continuation of policy by other means It is also an act of force to compel our enemy to do our will War is the means and the political goal is the endConception of friction something always goes wrong in practise versus in theory and the combination of minor incidents creates the friction that wears down the war machine Concept of defence it is merely awaiting the blow and therefore even offensive battles can be part of a defensive campaign Also it is easier to hold ground than take it as any time past spent waiting accumulates to the credit of the defender He reaps where he did not sow He also gains the advantage of position However defence only has a passive purpose of preservation while attack has the positive purpose of conquest Concept of culminating point strategic attacks lead up to the point where their remaining strength is just enough to maintain a defence and wait for peace beyond that the reaction is stronger than the original attack Concept of centre of gravity centre of gravity is the hub of all power and movement could be army could be capital a protector army public opinion etc If the enemy is thrown off balance he must not be given time to recover The victor must strike with all his strength and not just against a fraction of the enemys One wins all by daring to win all Defeat and destruction of his army is the best way to winsecond to that is seizure of his capitaldelivery of blow to principal ally can do much to contribute to the defeat of an enemywhen one side in a war has more than one state the question is whether each state is pursuing an independent policy the more this is so the easier it is to regard all opponents as a single entity Baron de Joministrategy includes the selection of battlefield including its decisive points the objective the base and the lines of defence offence and operations
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