POLI 227 Study Guide - Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, Democratic Consolidation, Fernando Henrique Cardoso

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Published on 13 Apr 2013
School
McGill University
Department
Political Science
Course
POLI 227
Professor
Chapter OneThe Challenge of Third World Development
! LDCs: less developed countries
! NICs: newly industrializing countries
! HDI: human development index (best single measure of a nation’s quality of life)
! Many of the issues concerning countries such as Afghanistan [religious intolerance],
Colombia [poverty and revolutionary conflict], Iraq/Nigeria [ethnically based massacres],
and Zimbabwe/Burma [political repression] are present in industrialized democracies but
in a milder form
! Developing nations (areas) is the term used by political scientists
! Third World countries is the label most frequently used [this term is imprecise]
o Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Latin America and the Caribbean that do not belong
to the First World
o 3rd world includes non-European communist nations such as China, Cuba, and
Vietnam, which resemble other developing nations on many dimensions
Countries fall under its banner not because of any specific quality, but simply because they are
not members of either the First World or Second world.
3rd world commonalities: the nature of underdevelopment
Despite their differences, 3rd world countries share a number of common characteristics
! They all suffer from some aspects of political, economic or social underdevelopment
o South Korea/Singapore/Taiwan are no longer economically underdeveloped, they
still share a high vulnerability to global economic forces and continue to suffer
from political underdevelopment
Economic Underdevelopment
! Poverty is the biggest characteristic for some countries
! National level; this is manifested by some combination of low GDP [gross domestic
product] per capital [a measure of per-capita income], highly unequal income
distribution, poor infrastructure [including communications and transportation], limited
use of modern technology, and low consumption of energy
! Grassroots level; economic underdevelopment connotes widespread scarcity, substantial
unemployment, substandard housing, poor health conditions, and inadequate nutrition
! GDP is a measure similar to GNP (gross national product) the indicator most frequently
used in the US but it excludes “net factor income from abroad”.
! Per-capita income refers to GDP per capita based on parity purchasing power (PPP). This
is a measure of economic production per person, statistically adjusted to each country’s
cost of living. PPP adjustments allow a more meaningful comparison of what per-capita
incomes in different countries can actually purchase
! In 2008, the World Bank estimated that 3.14 billion people in the LDCs lived in poverty
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! It is believed that income is more equitably distributed in economically advanced nations
than in LDCs. Exception: the poor in the US live better than most people in LDCs, yet
the gap between rich and poor is greater in the US than in countries such as Ethiopia,
Egypt and India.
! A positive correlation between two measures means that as one factor goes up, the other
factor generally does as well
! A negative correlation means that as one factor rises, the other one declines
Social Underdevelopment
3rd world poverty tends to correlate with poor social conditions such as high infant mortality and
low literacy rates, which in turn narrow opportunities for human development in other areas. In
order to modernize and develop economically, they must improve their educational systems.
This would result in:
! More trained professionals
! Higher labor productivity
! Increase political participation
! Greater government accountability
[See table 1.3; page 10]
! Since 1960, life expectancy in the 3rd world has increased impressively following a
number of national and international campaigns against infectious diseases, improved
sanitary conditions and other advances
! Life expectancy and literacy are particularly valuable indicators of development as they
are not distorted by skewed distribution (unlike per-capita income)
! Despite economic decline in Africa, Latin America, East Asia, 3rd world has enjoyed
considerable social development in the past 40-50 years
o Example: adult illiteracy is almost 2/3 below its 1965 rate, falling from 59% to
about 21%. Improved health care and sanitation have helped reduce infant
mortality rates by 60%. This in turn helped raise life expectancy from 53.4 yrs in
1960 to some 65 yrs today
! UNDP: united nations development programme
[See table 1.4; page 13; reveals the substantial socioeconomic differences between 3rd world
regions]
! East Asia is the world’s fastest-growing regional economy
Political Underdevelopment
Political development involves:
! Creation of specialized and differentiated government institutions that carry out different
functions
o Collecting tax revenues
o Defending national borders
o Maintaining political stability
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o Stimulating economic development
o Improving the quality of human life
o Communicating with the citizenry
Any government satisfying these standards would enjoy a reasonable level of legitimacy,
encouraging individuals and groups to pursue their political objectives peacefully through
established political institutions rather than through violent or illegal channels.
Accepted definitions of full democracy: honest and competitive elections in which opposition
parties have a realistic chance of winning; universal or nearly universal adult suffrage;
widespread opportunities for political participation; free and open mass media; and government
respect for human rights, including minority rights.
Some relationships between the Components of Development
! Responsive and legitimate governments, constrained by competitive elections, are more
likely to educate their citizens and to make informed economic decisions
! Both economic and social development tend to correlate with political development
! 3rd world countries are not likely to become democracies or to maintain democracy unless
they have reached a minimal threshold of socioeconomic development
! Some scholars suggest that an authoritarian government might be helpful in the early to
middle stages of industrialization in order to control labor unions and workers’ wages,
thereby increasing company profits and attracting new external investments
The Causes of Underdevelopment
! MNCs: multinational corporations
! IMF: international monetary fund
! Causes are interpreted in different ways by scholars depending on their personal
background, country of origin, ideology
o Dependency theory & world systems theory which view Western exploitation as
the root cause of 3rd world underdevelopment, have been particularly popular
among Latin American and African analysts
! Dependency theory: originated in Latin America in the 1970’s and offered radical
perspective on development, one particularly popular among 3rd world scholars
Modernization Theory and the Importance of Cultural Values
! Figures in comparative politics: Gabriel Almond, James Coleman, Samuel Huntington,
Lucian Pye
! Most 3rd world nations follow a path of political and economic modernization parallel to
the one first traveled by the advances Western countries.
! Transforming traditional cultures was considered the first, and by most accounts, most
crucial step in the modernization process
! Max Weber and Talcott Parsons distinguished the difference between “traditional” and
modern” values. They saw many traditional political and economic values as somewhat
irrational, or at least unscientific.
o Caste system: assigned people their rank in society at birth, a rank that was
difficult to change
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Document Summary

Hdi: human development index (best single measure of a nation"s quality of life) Many of the issues concerning countries such as afghanistan [religious intolerance], Colombia [poverty and revolutionary conflict], iraq/nigeria [ethnically based massacres], and zimbabwe/burma [political repression] are present in industrialized democracies but in a milder form. Developing nations (areas) is the term used by political scientists. Vietnam, which resemble other developing nations on many dimensions. Countries fall under its banner not because of any specific quality, but simply because they are not members of either the first world or second world. Despite their differences, 3rd world countries share a number of common characteristics: south korea/singapore/taiwan are no longer economically underdeveloped, they. They all suffer from some aspects of political, economic or social underdevelopment still share a high vulnerability to global economic forces and continue to suffer from political underdevelopment. Poverty is the biggest characteristic for some countries.

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