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PSYC 180 Final Exam Review Terminology copy.doc

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PSYC 180
Amir Raz

PSYC 180 Critical Thinking: Biases and Illusions Final Exam Review: Terminologies flow: a state of effortless concentration so deep that you lose your sense of time, of yourself and of your problems ego depletion: when you have forced yourself to do something you are less willing or less able to exert self-control when the next challenge comes associatively coherent: a self reinforcing pattern of cognitive, emotional, and physical responses that is both diverse and integrated priming effect: related words can be evoked cognitive ease: the range between “easy” and “strained”; when things are going well and there are no threats or major news, etc. cognitive strain: affected by both the current level of effort and the presence of unmet demands mere exposure effect: being exposed more frequently to something makes you favour it more halo effect: tendency to like (or dislike) everything about a person - including the things you have not observed (i.e first impressions) WYSIATI: What You See Is All There Is judgement heuristic: winning and losing candidates show that we biologically predisposed to reject candidates who lack the attributes we value sum-like variables: of what the size of the category, the number of instances it contains tends to be ignored substitution: when an answer to a hard question is not found immediately, system 1 finds a related question that is easier and will answer it affect heuristic: people let their likes and dislikes determine their beliefs about the world anchoring effect: occurs when people consider a particular value for an unknown quantity before estimating that quantity - the estimates stay close to the number that people considered, hence image of an anchor availability heuristic: substitutes one question for another availability cascade: the mechanism through which biases flow into policy (due to media, there is public panic and people become aroused and emotional which then becomes a story in itself and thus more media coverage) base rate: the class probabilities unconditioned on featural evidence, also known as prior probabilities (how often something occurs) representativeness: focusing exclusively on the similarity of the descrption to the stereotypes and ignoring both the base rates and the doubts about the veracity of the description sin of representativeness: excessive willingness to predict the occurance of unlikely (low base rate) events or insensitivity to the quality of evidence fallacy: when people fail to apply a logical rule that is obviously relevent conjunction fallacy: people commit when they judge a conjunction of two events to be more probable than one of the events in a direct comparison statistical base rates: facts about a population to which a case belongs, but not relevant to the case causal base rates: they change your view of how the individual case came to be (a stereotypical trait that is attributed to an individual or a significant feature of the situation that affects an individual’s outcome) regression to the mean: inference due to random fluctuations in the quality of performance correlation coefficient: between two measures, varies between 0 and 1, and is a measure of the relative weight of the factors they share (their linear dependence) narrative fallacy: flawed stories of the past shape our view of the world and our expectations for the future hindsight bias: your inability to reconstruct past beliefs will inevitably cause you to underestimate the extent to which you were surprised by past events outcome bias: we assess the quality of a decision not by whether the process was sound but by whether its outcome was good or bad illusion of validity: thinking that your judgment of a person is correct based on little evidence and WYSIATI when it really isn’t illusion of skill: people believe tey know more about something than the market does multiple regression: a statistical practice that assigns weights to different predictors recognition-primed decision (RPD): applies to expertie in various domains. The “expert” makes decisions with a single option and evaluate it by mentally simulating it to see if it would worki n the situation they were facing. if it wasn’t appropriate, they would modify it. If not easily modified they would turn to the nect most plausible option planning fallacy: plans and forecasts that are unrealistically close to the best case scenarios and that could be improved by consulting the statistics of similar cases sunken-cost fallacy: making an additional investment because you don’t want to admit failure competition neglect: entreneurs to do not think about their competition when starting up. more competitors enter the market than the market can profitably sustain, so their average outcome is a loss premortem: when an organization has almost come to an important decision but has not yet formally committed itself loss aversion: losses loom larger than gains indifferent map: the more leisure you ahve, the less you care for an extra day of it, and each day added is worth less than the one before endowment effect: if you have something you are not willing to sell or trade for a price not significantly higher than what you would buy it for certainty effect: outcomes that are almost certain are given less weight than their probability justifies narrow framing: a sequence of two simple decisions, considered separately broad framing: a single decision, with four options the disposition effect: there is a massive preference for selling winners rather than losers (instance of narrow framing) taboo tradeoff: being against accepting any increase in risk preference reversal: an individual chooses one bet over another but is then willing to pay money to exchange the item they just chose for the one they rejected evaluability hypothesis: the number of entries (in a dictionary) is given no weight in single evaluation, but in joint evaluation it is obvious that one (dictionary) is superior (10 000 entries vs 20 000 entries with a torn-off cover) decision utility: “wantability” the only basis for judging that a decision is wrong is inconsistency with other preferences peak-end rule: the global retrospective rating was well predicted by an average of the level of pain at the worst moment of the experience and at its end duration neglect: the duration of the procedure had no effect on the rating of the total pain cognitive illusion: confusing experience with memory poignancy: counterfactual feeling which is evoked becaue the thought “if only...” comes to mind (similar to regret) emotional framing: a bad outcome is much more acceptable if it is framed as the cost of a lottery ticket that did not win, than if it is simply described as losing a gamble prospect theory: decision makers tend to prefer the sure thing over the gamble when the outcomes are good, but they tend to reject the sure thing and accept the gamble when both are negative outcomes framing effect: example of cognitive bias in which people react differently to a particular choice depending on whether it is presented as a loss or as a gain hedonimeter: used to measure pain and pleasure experienced daily U-index: time spent in unpleasant state SMORC: Simple Model of Rational Crime fudge factor: suggests if we want to take a bite out of crime, we need to find a way to chane the way in which we are able to rationalize our actions signaling: despite what we tend to think, we don’t have a very clear notion of who we are; we generally believe that we have a privileged view of our own preferences and character and we observe ourselves int eh same way we oberve and judge actions of others The What The Hell Effect: when you have cheated a little bit and so it makes you think “what the hell” and you cheat a lot (mostly in dieting) broken window theory: if people in a rundown town see a few broken windows tehy will be tempted to break even more windows and create further damage to the building and its surroundings social utility: term used to describe the irrational but very human and wonderfully empathetic part of us that causes us to care about others and take action to ehlp them out when we can even at a cost to ourselves altruistic tendencies: people are more liekly to cheat when team members benefit from dishonesty Human Genome Project: an international project to map the entire genetic material of a human being The Bayh Dole Act: allowed universities to retain ownership to inventions and gave right to obtain intellectualy property control of their research which resulted from federal funding self deception: (science) when a scientist will only use data that supports their hypothesis holistic health medicine: theory based on the idea that you do not just treat a sickness, you treat the entire person double blind study: an experimental procedure in which neither the subjects of the experiment nor the persons administering the experiment know the critical aspects of the experiment (double blind randomized placebo controlled is the best
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