PSYC 180 Study Guide - Medical Prescription, Karl Popper, Pseudoscience

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8 May 2012
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PSYC180 Clicker Session Questions
Which of the following represents a true statement?
Case studies can be used for exploratory analyses
Which of the following statements is true?
Homeopathic remedies are largely propagated because of personal oddmatch.
Evidence from systematic review on homeopathy suggest that:
Clinical effects of homeopathy are not convincingly different from placebo
Coincidence is the opposite of illusory correlation.
True
Illusory correlation involves:
Finding an expected correlation in random events
The author uses the examples of monkeys throwing darts to illustrate what point?
Chance events may appear to result from predictable factors
You are given the task of predicting which side a fair coin will land on 100 times in a row. You are most likely
to perform best if:
You choose either heads or tails 100 times
Pareidolia, a psychological phenomenon where a vague and random stimulus is perceived as significant, is
similar to which of the following?
Rorshach (inkblot) test
Which of the following can account for our increased tendency not to attribute personal oddmatch to chance?
The vividness effect
Because they rely on personal information and professional expertise, clinical predictions are more accurate
than actuarial predictions.
False
Which of the following concepts allude to the misunderstanding of the role of chance in the world’s events?
Illusory correlation, gambler’s fallacy, the just-world hypothesis
Magic is helpful for psychology because:
Magic tricks draw on flaws in our cognitive and perceptual systems
Inattentional blindness differs from change blindness in that there is no need to compare the current scene with
a scene from memory
True
What do the “red dress” trick and the “Vanishing Ball Illusion” have in common?
They both rely on inherent properties of the visual system
Magicians and pickpockets are similar in that they sometimes use the same techniques to fool their targets.
True
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Magicians sometimes take advantage of our propensity to make illusory correlations between events in order to
mask their methods.
True
Which of the following can we learn from magic tricks?
We have limited capacity for attention
Our decisions are often directed through subtle manipulation
We often base our perceptions on a set of assumptions
The “Vanishing Ball Illusion” illustrates which of the following concepts?
The effect of expectation on perception
Which of the following is false with regard to magic?
Magicians hide their methods by relying on speed
According to Kuhn, which of the following magic methods resemble techniques used in advertising and
political propaganda?
Forcing
Which of the following is true with regard to magic?
Magic tricks work better when using suggestions and unspoken assumptions rather than direct assertions
Which of the following is false about Harry Houdini?
He educated the public about the effects of ether
Magicians have more difficult deceiving people with higher IQ scores.
False
The history of magic that Joe Schwarcz presented suggests that
Magic allowed to educate the world about certain scientific discoveries
A skeptic is someone who refuses to believe extraordinary claims.
False
Dr. Schwarcz performed Invisible Deck Effect to illustrate
Why critical thinking is important
Which of the following is not an environmental influence on eating habits?
The number of food choices you believe you make per day
According to the author, most people use rules of thumb to help monitor the amount of food they eat.
True
In study 1, how many food choices did the participant estimate they made versus how many they actually
made?
They estimated about 15 choices, they actually made over 200
In study 2, what explanation did most participants offer for eating more?
Most attributed it to hunger
Which of the following is true about findings of the studies?
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