Answer: man (crawls at 4, walks normally at 2 and uses a cane at 3) Empedecles: mental process is located in the heart (heart was the saeat of thought because it is necessary for life) Aristotle: brain was the passion of the heart. Galen: surgeon to gladiators (behavioural defecits of brain damage) Pointed out that nerves go to the heart (against aristotle) God on the ceiling of sistine chapel by michelangelo. Cns plays a critical role in receiving info and controlling. There are two approaches to the mind-body problem. Monoism: the mind and brain are the same thing; the mind is a phenomenon of the working of the nervous system (brain) Dualism: the mind and brain (body) are trated as separate; they are fundamentally different. Body is nothing more than a organing machine. Intense heat of the foot causes nerves activity to flow up to the brain and it reflected back to the foot which cuases the foot to contract.