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PSYC 211 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Olfactory Bulb, Preoptic Area, Androstadienone


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 211
Professor
Yogita Chudasama
Study Guide
Midterm

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VNO&determines&gender,&estrous&condition,&and&identity&of&the&other&animal&&
Without&the&VNO,&the&mouse&will&attempt&to&mate&indiscriminately&
Without&the&ability&of&smell,&it&will&not&approach&or&sniff&another&mouse&at&all&
&
The&main&olfactory&bulb&can&detect&the&pheromone&and&elicit&the&behavior.&&
&
Deleting&a&pheromone&receptor&from&the&VNO&causes&male&sexual&behavior&in&females&&
&
Medial&Nucleus&of&the&Amygdala:&&
The&olfactory&bulbs&sends&axons&to&the&medial&nucleus&of&the&amygdala&&
Lesions&of&the&medial&amygdala&abolish&sexual&behavior&in&male&hamsters&&
The&medial&amygdala&is&part&of&a&system&that&mediates&the&effects&of&pheromones&&
The&amygdala&projects&to&the&preoptic&area&and&the&ventromedial&hypothalamic&nuclei&&
&
Pheromone]phenomena&in&Humans&
The&menstrual&cycle&of&women&attending&an&all&female&college&have&synchronized&cycles.&Women&
who&spend&more&time&in&the&company&of&men&have&shorter&cycles&&
Compounds&present&in&human&sweat&have&different&effects.&Androstadienone&increases&alertness&
and&positive&mood&in&women&but&decreases&positive&mood&in&men&&
The&familiar&odor&of&a&sex&partner&has&a&positive&effect&on&sexual&arousal&&
Men&and&women&can&learn&to&be&attracted&to&their&partners&characteristic&odor,&e.g.&the&smell&of&
their&clothes&&
&
Sexual&Orientation&&
Sexual&orientation&is&the&gender&of&the&preferred&sex&partner&
A&social&explanation:&there&is&no&evidence&that&childhood&experiences&affect&sexual&orientation&&
A&biological&explanation:&&
o Levels&of&sex&steroids&in&homosexual&males&are&equivalent&to&heterosexual&males&&
o 30%&of&female&homosexuals&have&elevated&levels&of&testosterone&(but&still&lower&than&
found&in&men)&&
o Differences&in&prenatal&exposure&to&androgens&might&causes&differences&in&brain&
structure&&
! Male&homosexual&brains&are&neither&masculinized&nor&defeminized&&
! Female&homosexuals&brains&are&masculinized&and&defeminized&
! The&brains&of&bisexuals&are&masculinized&but&not&defeminized&&
! THESE&ARE&SPECULATIONS&&
&
Prenatal&Androgenization&of&Genetic&Females:&&
Prenatal&androgens&can&affect&human&sexual&orientation&&
In&congenital&adrenal&hyperplesia&(CAH),&the&adrenal&glands&secrete&abnormal&amounts&of&
androgen&(starts&prenatally).&&
This&causes&prenatal&masculinization.&Therefore,&boys&born&with&CAH&develop&as&boys&&
Girls&with&CAH&will&be&born&with&an&enlarged&clitoris&and&the&labia&might&be&fused&together.&
Sometimes,&a&surgery&is&needed&to&correct&them&&
Females&with&CAH&may&be&attracted&to&other&women&(or&are&bisexual)&(30%),&but&several&women&
with&CAH&consider&themselves&heterosexual&&
NCAH&has&the&same&effect&but&without&the&genital&enlargement&&
&
Children&typically&show&sex&differences&in&toy&preferences&
Boys&prefer&toys&that&can&be&used&actively,&those&that&can&move&or&be&propelled&by&the&child&
Girls&prefer&toys&that&provide&the&opportunity&for&nurturance&&
Girls&with&CAH&strongly&prefer&to&play&with&boys&toys&&
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