PSYC 211 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Striatum, Basal Ganglia, Caudate Nucleus

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23 Jul 2016
Department
Course
o Oral&apraxia&problems&with&muscles&used&in&speech&&
o Apraxic&agraphia:&problems&with&writing&&
o Constructional&apraxia:&problems&with&drawing&or&constructing&objects&&
&
Limb&Apraxia:&&
Limb&apraxia&is&characterized&by&movement&of&the&wrong&limb,&incorrect&movement&of&the&
correct&part&of&the&limb&or&correct&movements&in&the&incorrect&sequence&&
It&is&assessed&by&asking&people&to&imitate&hand&gestures&&
Limb&apraxia&can&be&caused&by&three&types&of&lesions:&&
o Lesions&in&the&anterior&corpus&callosum&&
o Lesions&of&the&motor&cortex&in&the&left&frontal&lobe&&
o Lesions&in&and&around&the&intraparietal&sulcus&of&the&left&parietal&lobe&&
&
Constructional&Apraxia:&&
Constructional&apraxia&is&caused&by&lesions&to&the&right&parietal&lobe&
People&with&constructional&apraxia&are&unable&to&draw&objects&or&pictures&or&assemble&objects&
from&elements&&
These&patients&are&unable&to&perceive&and&imagine&geometrical&relationships&
In&addition&to&apraxia,&these&patients&also&have&difficulty&with&other&tasks&involving&spatial&
perception&and&navigation&(e.g.&reading&a&map)&&
&
Basal&ganglia:&plays&an&essential&role&in&the&learning&and&execution&of&automatic&actions&
Caudate'nucleus:&a&telencephalic&nucleus,&one&of&the&input&nuclei&of&basal&ganglia,&involved&with&
the&control&of&voluntary&movement&
Putamen:&a&telencephalic&nucleus;&one&of&the&input&nuclei&of&the&basal&ganglia;&involved&with&
control&of&voluntary&movement&
Globus'pallidus:&a&telencephalic&nucleus;&the&primary&output&nucleus&of&the&basal&ganglia;&
involved&with&control&of&voluntary&movement&&
Ventral'anterior'nucleus:&a&thalamic&nucleus&that&receives&projections&from&the&basal&ganglia&and&
sends&projections&to&the&motor&cortex&&
Ventrolateral'nucleus:&a&thalamic&nucleus&that&receives&projections&from&the&basal&ganglia&and&
sends&projections&to&the&motor&cortex&
Subthalamic'nucleus:&a&nucleus&located&ventral&to&the&thalamus,&an&important&part&of&the&
subcortical&motor&system&that&includes&the&basal&ganglia;&a&target&of&deep&brain&stimulation&for&
treatment&of&Parkinson’s&disease&&
Direct'pathway'(in'basal'ganglia):&the&pathway&that&includes&the&caudate&nucleus&and&putamen,&
the&internal&division&of&the&globus&pallidus,&and&the&ventral&anterior/ventrolateral&thalamic&nuclei;&
has&an&excitatory&effect&on&movement&&
The&frontal,&parietal,&and&temporal&cortex&send&axons&to&the&caudate&nucleus&and&the&putamen,&
which&then&connect&with&the&globus&pallidus&&
The&globus&pallidus&sends&information&back&to&the&motor&cortex&via&the&ventral&anterior&and&
ventrolateral&nuclei&of&the&thalamus,&completing&the&loop.&&
The&basal&ganglia&can&monitor&somatosensory&information&and&are&informed&of&movements&being&
planned&and&executed&by&the&motor&cortex.&(SOMATOTOPIC)&
The&caudate]putamen&and&globus&pallidus&constitute&the&main&motor&components&of&the&basal&ganglia.&&
The&basal&ganglia&receive'most'of'their'input'from'the'entire'cerebral'cortex&especially&primary&motor&
cortex&and&somatosensory&cortex,&and&the&substantia'nigra,&which&houses&cell&bodies&of&the&dopamine&
neurons.&&
The&caudate&nucleus&and&putamen&receive&excitatory&input&from&the&cerebral&cortex.&&
They&send&inhibitory&axons&to&the&external&and&internal&division&of&the&globus&pallidus&&
The&subthalamic&nucleus&also&receives&excitatory&input&from&the&cerebral&cortex&and&it&sends&
excitatory&input&to&the&GP&internal&&
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