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PSYC 215 Midterm Review.pdf

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PSYC 215
Michael Sullivan

PSYC 215 Midterm ReviewCh 1 What is Social PsychologySocial psychology the scientific study of how individuals think feel and behave in a social context Focus on the individual as well as broad perspective on a variety of social contextsbehavioursThe socialness of social psychology variesnonsocial factorsnonsocial thoughts are studied as wellApplies the scientific method to the study of the human condition Emphasis on the social nature of individualso Sociology tends to focus on the group levelmain difference Common sense myth despite offering compelling predictions and explanations common sense is sometimes wildly inaccurate Social loss such as romantic breakup may be experienced as physical pain Kross Berman Mischel SmithWager 2011People who have experience with other cultures demonstrate more creative tendencies MadduxGalinsky 2009Having close friends is associated with health benefits Bukowski et al Determining whether heat causes an increase in aggression or whether Steve Nash causes an increase in the sale of Nike shoes are social psychological pursuitsWhy Because the behaviours either a concern other people or b are influenced by other peopleStrahan et alwhen unrealistic cultural norms around body image are made salient women become more concerned w how others might judge them From Past to Present A Brief History of Social PsychologyNorman Triplettcredited with publishing the first research article in social psychology 1898Found that bicyclists tend to race faster in the presence of competition Max Ringelmann 1913studied the effects of the presence of others on the performance of individuals Individuals often perform worse on simple tasks when in the presence of othersMcDougall 1908 Ross 1908 Allport 1924writers of the first three textbooks on social psychology Adolf Hitlerthe person with the strongest influence on social psychology The world needed to understand the reasons for violence war and how people willingly participated in genocide Sherifdemonstrated that it was possible to study complex social processes eg conformity social influence in a rigorous and scientific manner 1936 Kurt Lewin 1935 47 established fundamental principles of social psychology1 Behaviour is a function of the interaction between the person and the environment o Interactionist perspectiveemphasis on how personalityenvironment influence behaviour 2 Social psychological theories should be applied to important practical issues o No research without action no action without research Stanley Milgramdemonstrated individuals vulnerability to the destructive commands of authority Came at a time of debate in social psyc questions about ethical practices and research methodologies eg the lab experiment Result more rigorous ethical standards for research were implemented in the 1970s more stringent procedures to guard against bias and more attention paid to crosscultural differences in behaviour Estimated that 7590 of social psychologists lived in North America SmithBond 1993however this began to change rapidly in the 1990s Social Psychology in a New CenturySocial cognitionthe study of how people perceive remember and interpret information about themselves and others Hot perspective emotionmotivationCold perspective cognition Growing interest in distinguishing between automatic and controllable processes and in understanding the dynamic relationship between them BiologyEvolutionary perspectivesbased on neuroscience genetics and evolutionary principlesapplying them to issues such as gender differences relationships and aggressionSocial neuroscience study of the relationship between neural and social processesBehavioural genetics examines the role of genetic factors in behaviourEvolutionary psyc uses the principles of evolution to understand human social behaviour Cultural perspectivesevaluating the universal generality or cultural specificity of theories
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