Study Guides (238,295)
Canada (115,061)
Psychology (554)
PSYC 215 (47)
all (19)

BOOK NOTES- Social Psychology.docx

45 Pages
Unlock Document

McGill University
PSYC 215

2Social Psychology BOOK NOTESChapter 1Social Psychology the scientific study of how people affect and are affected by othersIt can help you make sense of your own social world One of the first social psychology experiments Norman TriplettThe presence of another bicycle rider releases the competitive instinct which increases nervous energy and thereby enhances performance Build a competition machinechildren winded up a fishing reel and they found that children working side by side others enhanced performance compared to working aloneMax RingelmannHe had men pull on a rope alone and as part of a group and he measured the amount of effort exerted by each participantAs group size increased amount of effort decreased This study can explain why people tend to slack off when working on group projectsThese 2 studies show the complete opposite this is to show that social behavior is complicatedPsychology was divided into 2 campsBehaviorism sought to explain all of psychology in terms of learning principles such as reward and punishmentFreudian psychoanalysis interpretations of individual experiences instead of systematic studies that counted behaviorsSocial psychology didnt really fall into either It was more congenial to the behaviorist in that it favored experiments and the scientific method but it was sympathetic to the Freudian camp with its interest in inner states and processesMcDougall and Ross published the first social psychology textbookABC Triad A stands for affect how people feel inside B stands for behavior what people do their actions C stands for Cognition what people think about When trying to explain some pattern of behavior the first place social psychologist generally look is to the situation Anthropology the study of human culture the shared values beliefs and practices of a group of peopleEconomics the study of the production distribution and consumption of goods and services and the study of moneyHistory the study of past eventsPolitical Science the study of political organizations and institutions especially governmentsSociology the study of human societies and the group that form those societies Social psychology and PsychologyPsychology the study of human behaviorSocial psychology is a branch of psychologyBiological psychology physiological psychology neuroscience the study of what happens in the brain nervous system and other aspects of the bodyClinical psychology branch of psychology that focuses on behavior disorders and other forms of mental illness and how to treat themFocuses on abnormalities while social psychology focuses on normalitysCognitive psychology the study of thought processes such as how memory works and what people noticeSocial psychology has borrowed heavily from cognitive psychology especially by using their methods for measuring cognitive processes Developmental psychology the study of how people change across their lives from conception and birth to old age and deathBorrowed much from social psychology but not the other way aroundPersonality psychology the branch of psychology that focuses on important differences between individuals Long and close relationship with social psychology Philosophy love of wisdom the pursuit of knowledge about fundamental matters such as life death meaning reality and truth Applied Research research that focuses on solving particular practical problemsCommon sense provides a good starting point for social psychologists to do their workThe scientific method involves 5 basic stepsThe researcher states a problem for studyThe researcher formulates a testable hypothesis as a tentative solution to the problem The researcher designs a study to test the hypothesis and collects data Anyone observing the data collection process should be able to replicate or repeat it A test is made of the hypothesis by confronting it with the data Statistical methods are used to test whether the data are consistent or inconsistent with the hypothesis No single study can prove anything beyond all doubt There is always the possibility that the data turned out a certain way as a fluke by random chance Usually researchers test their hypothesis at the 05 significance level If the test is significant at their level it mean that researchers are 95 confident that the results from this studies indicate a real difference and not a flukeThe researcher communicates the study results The researcher submits a manuscript describing exactly what was done and what was found to the editor of a scientific journal The editor then selects a few other experts in the area to review the manuscript The editor reads the manuscript independently reads the reviewers comments and then decides whether to accept the manuscript for publication Only about 1020 of manuscripts submitted to the best social psychology journals are accepted Withinsubjects design an experiment in which each participant is exposed to all levels of the independent variableBetweensubjects design an experiment in which each participant is exposed to only one level of the independent variable Social psychologists derive their hypothesis from theories unobservable constructs that are linked together in some logical way Independent variable is any observable event that causes the person to do something It is independent in the sense that its values are created by the researcher and are not affected by anything else that happens in the experiment Dependent variable is any observable behavior produced by the person It is dependent in the sense that its values are assumed to depend on the values of the independent variable In a study of the effect of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beer on aggression aggression is the dependent variable Operational definition classifies the oretical constructs in terms of observable operations procedures and measurements Confederate a research assistant pretending to be another participant in a study Construct validity of the cause the extent to which the independent variable is a valid representation of the theoretical stimulusConstruct validity of the effect the extent to which the dependent variable is a valid representation of the theoretical responseExperiment a study in which the researcher manipulates an independent variable and randomly assigns people to groups2 essential features1 Researcher has control over the procedures By exercising control the researcher tries to make sure that any differences observed on the dependent variable were caused by the independent variable and not by other factors2 Participants are randomly assigned to the levels of independent variables Random assignment procedure whereby each study participant has an equal chance of being in each treatment groupBy randomly assigning participants to groups the researcher attempts to ensure that there are no initial differences between groups Quasiexperiment a type of study in which the researcher can manipulate an independent variable but cannot use random assignmentIn a quasiexperiment the researcher takes people as they are
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 215

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.