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McGill University
PSYC 305
Heungsun Hwang

PHGY 210 001 & 002 – Mammalian Physiology 2 FINAL EXAMINATION 1. Polypeptide hormones are initially synthesized as a) prohormones. b) preprophormones. c) vesicles. d) glycoproteins. e) None of the above statements is correct. 2. Thyroid hormone a) is a steroid. b) production in excess causes cretinism. c) is produced from a protein called thyroglobulin. d) is not produced in Grave’s disease. e) None of the above statements is correct. 3. Parathyroid hormone a) is produced as a mature polypeptide of 84 amino acids. b) induces release of calcium from bone in a process known as bone resorption. c) stimulates the production of the active form of vitamin D3 in the kidney. d) inhibits loss of calcium in the kidney. e) All of the above statements are correct. 4. Insulin a) acts to lower circulating glucose concentrations. b) is produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas. c) can be mimicked by the action of glucocorticoids. d) is not produced in type II diabetes. e) None of the above statements is correct. 5. Lung compliance is a) calculated as the change in lung volume divided by the corresponding change in transpulmonary pressure (difference between alveolar and pleural pressure). b) greater at high than at low lung volumes. c) greater in fibrosis than in a normal lung. d) greater in normal lungs than in emphysema. e) None of the above statements are correct. 2 6. During forced expiration, the descending portion of the flow-volume curve is independent of the effort because a) the alveolar pressure is greater than the mouth pressure. b) the pleural pressure is greater than the airway pressure. c) the alveolar pressure is greater than the pleural pressure. d) the alveolar pressure is greater than the airway pressure. e) the abdominal pressure is greater than the thoracic pressure. 7. Which of the following receptors/structures sense the degree of lung inflation? a) The aortic bodies. b) The carotid bodies. c) The pulmonary stretch receptors. d) The central chemoreceptors. e) The irritant receptors. 8. Which of the following is true about the various classes of blood vessels? a) The innermost layer of cells in all vessels is made up of epithelial cells. b) Arteries are high-resistance vessels. c) Veins are high-resistance vessels. d) The distribution of blood flow to the various organs is largely controlled by the arterioles. e) Most of the blood resides on the arterial side of the circulation. 9. Which of the following is true about the electrocardiogram? a) Lead II is obtained by subtracting the voltage at the right leg from the voltage at the left arm. b) There are only two electrodes connected to the subject to record lead I. c) There are 9 unipolar leads recorded in the 12-lead clinical electrocardiogram. d) The QRS-complex is generated by atrial repolarization. e) The left-leg electrode is used as a voltage reference. 10. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system will a) decrease the end-systolic volume in the left ventricle. b) decrease the rate at which force is generated in ventricular muscle. c) increase the duration of the ventricular contraction. d) shift the contractility curve (the curve showing stroke volume plotted against end-diastolic volume) downwards and to the right. e) decrease the plasma levels of circulating epinephrine. 3 11. When a healthy young person stands up, there is a gradual, continuing loss of plasma volume (this fact was not mentioned in the lectures). In fact, the plasma volume falls by about 500 ml during the first 15 minutes of standing. This loss of plasma volume is caused by a) increased pressure diuresis by the kidneys. b) decreased plasma level of circulating aldosterone. c) decreased pressure in the veins of the legs. d) increased intra-capillary pressure in the legs. e) decreased interstitial fluid volume. 12. With endurance training, the blood volume increases. In an endurance-trained athlete, one would expect that this would result in a) an increase in the heart rate at rest. b) an increase in the maximum heart rate. c) a decrease the arterial blood pressure at rest. d) an increase in the stroke volume at rest. e) a decrease in the cardiac output at rest. 13. An Olympic cyclist decides to do “blood doping”. She collects her own blood, separates the red blood cells from the plasma, and then, some time later, on the day before the competition, re- infuses these red cells back into her body. One would then expect, with respect to her normal performance a) a decrease in the oxygen content of arterial blood (ml O /100 ml blood). 2 b) an increase the arterio-venous oxygen difference at maximum exercise. c) an increase in the heart rate at maximum exercise. d) an increase in the stroke volume at maximum exercise. e) a decrease in the oxygen consumption at maximum exercise. 14. Which of the following statements is true about cardio-vascular disease? a) 90% of all deaths due to cardiovascular disease are due to coronary heart disease. b) A coronary thrombosis occurs when a clot forms in the brain. c) A bypass graft is commonly used to treat hypertension. d) In the early stage of heart failure, before any bene ficial compensatory reflex changes can occur, the contractility curve (the curve relating stroke volume to end-diastolic volume) shifts upwards and to the left. e) The decrease in the incidence of smoking in North America in the last few decades has had a major impact on the mortality due to cardiovascular disease. 4 15. The trace below is a recording of the mean blood pressure obtained from a patient who accidently overdosed on one of his cardiovascular medications. Consider only the first four hours immediately after ingesting (i.e., taking) the drug. The drug might have been a) an angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. b) a beta-antagonist. c) an alpha-antagonist. d) a renin inhibitor. e) any of the above. 16. Gastrin a) is a steroid hormone. b) is secreted by cells located in the proximal region of the stomach. c) stimulates acid secretion in a paracrine fashion. d) plays an important physiological role in the control of the LES. e) may be released during the cephalic phase of gastric secretion. 17. The pharyngeal phase of deglutition a) is coordinated by a centre located in the lateral cerebral cortex. b) is accompanied by a brief period of apnea. c) lasts normally about 8 seconds. d) involves the activity of smooth muscle. e) may be inhibited by atropine. 18. Secondary esophageal peristalsis in the distal esophagus, a) is never seen in the normal individual. b) may be triggered by rapid swallowing of liquids. c) has a frequency that is determined by the BER of the musculature in this region. d) depends entirely on the integrity of the vagal innervation to this region. e) cannot occur if the enteric innervation in this region has been destroyed. 5 19. The LES a) is represented by a well developed thickening of the circular layer of muscle. b) is located entirely within the thoracic cavity. c) is kept closed in the absence of swallowing by vagally-mediated impulses originating in the CNS. d) relaxes during swallowing by a mechanism which involves the release of a NANC neurotransmitter. e) All of the above statements are correct. 20. Which one of the following statements regarding gastric Receptive Relaxation in response to the intake of a meal is incorrect? a) It is one of the deglutition reflexes. b) It is restricted to the proximal region of the stomach. c) It is not affected by destruction of the vagal innervation to the stomach. d) It is mediated by enteric neurons which release a NANC neurotransmitter. e) It maintains a low intragastric pressure as the stomach accommodates the meal. 21. Which one of the following statements regarding the gastrointestinal BER (ECA) is correct? a) Its frequency in a given region determines the maximum frequency of contractions in that region. b) It has a higher frequency in the proximal stomach than in the distal stomach. c) It has a higher frequency in the distal stomach than it does in the duodenum. d) It is absent during the interdigestive period. e) It is absent following destruction of the enteric ganglia. 22. Destruction of the Chemoreceptor Trigger Zone (CTZ) results in the inability to vomit in response to a) excessive distension of the duodenum. b) chemical irritation of the duodenum. c) the sight or smell of something that evokes unpleasant memories. d) the intravenous administration of an emetic drug. e) All of the above statements are correct. 23. Which one of the following statements regarding gastric emptying is incorrect? a) Liquids empty faster than solids. b) Carbohydrate meals empty faster than fatty meals of equal size and consistency. c) Hypertonic meals empty faster than isotonic meals of the same size and consistency. d) Liquids empty more slowly if the vagal supply to the proximal stomach has been previously destroyed. e) Solids empty more slowly if the vagal supply to the distal stomach has been previously destroyed. 24. The enterogastric reflex a) stimulates gastric secretion, but inhibits gastric motility. b) stimulates gastric motility, but inhibits gastric secretion. c) may be triggered by the presence of fatty contents in the gastric antrum. d) is responsible for the release of the enterogastrone hormonal complex. e) NONE of the above statements is correct. 6 25. Saliva and pancreatic juice are similar in that a) both are isotonic. b) both have a strongly alkaline pH. c) both may be secreted in response to the administration of secretin. d) both may be secreted in response to stimulation of the parasympathetic innervation to their respective glands (salivary glands and pancreas). e) both contain an enzyme which breaks down disaccharides to monosaccharides. 26. Parietal cells a) are mostly located in the antral region of the stomach. b) produce pepsinogen. c) respond to stimulation by histamine by releasing HCO ions3into the circulation. d) lack receptors for gastrin, but respond to the histamine released directly by gastrin. e) have a Na /H ATPase in the apical membrane, which allows for the secretion of H ions into the canalicular lumen. 27. Chymotrypsinogen a) is the inactive form of trypsin. b) is a trypsin-inhibitor. c) may be activated by trypsin. d) is secreted by the pancreatic duct cells. e) is secreted in pancreatic juice in response to the administration of secretin. 28. Which one of the following statements about Bile Salts is incorrect? a) They are synthesized from cholesterol. b) They help keep cholesterol in bile in solution. c) They are powerful choleretic agents. d) They assist in the intestinal transport and absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. e) They stimulate the gallbladder to contract. 29. Slight constriction of the efferent glomerular arteriole might a) increase urinary excretion of potassium. b) increase GFR. c) reduce urinary excretion of sodium. d) reduce creatinine clearance. e) reduce arterial blood pressure. 30. Renal clearance of para-amino-hippurate (PAH) exceeds 500L/day and renal clearance of inulin is 180L/day. This indicates a) PAH secretion. b) PAH reabsorption. c) that GFR is about half of normal. d) that GFR is about twice normal. e) inulin reabsorption in the renal tubule. 7 31. Which of the following is TRUE regarding sodium handling in the kidney? a) 75% of NaCl is cleared from the body in the urine and the remaining 25% in the sweat. b) Most of the Na and water reabsorption occurs in the loop of Henle. + c) Na is mai+ly an intracellular ion. + d) Plasma Na level is a good indicator of total body Na . e) Changes in total body Na result in changes in extracellular fluid volume. 32. Which one of the following statements regarding aldosterone is correct? a) Aldosterone is a peptide hormone. + b) Aldosterone stimulates about 60% of Na reabsorption in the proximal tubule. c) Aldosterone is released from the posterior pituitary gland. d) Aldosterone stimulates tubular reabsorption of Na .+ + e) Aldosterone stimulates K reabsorption. 33. Which one of the following statements regarding vasopressin (ADH) is incorrect? a) When vasopressin is present in the blood, the urine is more concentrated. b) When vasopressin is absent from the blood, the urine is usually very diluted. c) Vasopressin released to the blood stream, is stimulated by nausea. d) When vasopressin is present in the b
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