Study Terms 2 [chronological] pdf.pdf

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Religious Studies
RELG 203
Jeffrey Keiser

Mid Term Study Terms Part 1: identify & state the significance a. to whom or what the term refers b. its significance as discussed in lectures/readings (if a given term has multiple significations, focus on a single example) For Biblical Passages - indicate the general content of the passage, & explain one way in which it is/has been culturally significant For Art/Music/Painting/Sculpture - indicate the biblical passage, scene, or character portrayed. Explain one way in which the work relates to themes discussed in lectures/ readings. Part 2: short answer questions. study terms, lecture notes & assigned readings Bible passages - content & cultural significance Art - bible passage it refers to, how it relates to themes discussed Definitions of Culture - set of beliefs, practices, values “...that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities or habits acquired by man as a member of society” (Edward B. Tyler) - a standard of excellence high culture (elite class) vs. folk culture (non-mass produced, artisanship) vs. low culture (cheap, low class) - a way of life - an ideology of power Myth - A traditional story, typically involving supernatural beings or forces, which embodies and provides an explanation ... or justification for something such as the early history of a society, a religious belief or ritual ... a natural phenomenon [a value system or an ideology] alternative definition (becoming increasingly common): - a widespread but untrue or erroneous story or belief; a widely held misconception; a misrepresentation of the truth. Something existing only in myth; a fictitious or imaginary person. - necessarily a story that is false Myth: - usually involves superhuman characters - usually concerns events remote in antiquity - usually involves a conviction that the world as perceived by our senses it not the ʻcomplete truthʼ - intertwining of good and evil (not simply binary opposites), heaven & hell meet on earth. - no fixed canonical or authoritative form (exists in multiple forms) Secularization a. ongoing upholding of values without any doctrine b. public discourse vs. private discourse c. radical secularization hypothesis - since the Enlightenment, society has become increasingly rational, sloughing off the irrationality of religion. we no longer need religion as a crutch. “Render therefore unto caesar the things which are Caesars; and unto God the things that are Gods” (Matthew 22:21) - Jesus implying a distinction between religion and politics - topic of debate for separation of Church and State Classical Sources of Western Culture Israel (monotheism + legal & ethical structures) Greece (political & philosophical structures) Rome (legal structures) -> The West can be described as a particular orientation toward the past, and toward these three cultures (which are ʻnon-westernʼ) The Ages of “Man” Stages for all three sources: (Greece, Rome, Israel) -> chaos ▯ *except Genesis ▯ ▯ ▯ -> Golden Age -> Silver Age *except Israel -> Bronze Age -> Iron Age (violence/corruption) it seems that one narrative can supply whatʼs missing in another narrative. synthesis of these stories form a coherent narrative. Five Ages of Man Hesiodʼs Five Ages of Man: Golden Age - no sorrow, toil, grief Silver Age - Sin, No Sacrifices to Gods Bronze Age - Violent Race of Warriors Heroic Age - ʻgod-like race of hero-menʼ Iron Age - ʻmen never rest from labour and sorrow by day, and from perishing by nightʼ (ʻfall of manʼ common way of writing pre-history) Heʼd say weʼre now in Iron Age. -> expanded in Hesiod reading Golden Age Golden Age - no sorrow, toil, grief Hesiodʼs first “Age of Man” similar to Eden. - first stage of Merchantʼs Modernist Recovery Narrative (“The Fall from Eden”) Paradise Eden, Promised Land, Heaven. (beginning, middle, end of narrative) represents the last heaven, last adam, Christ. Primeval history Genesis 1-11 covers 3000 years (distinct from Abrahamic narrative, which covers only 4 generations) Creation & Chaos - Babylonian Myth: the world came out of battle/strife/chaos - Biblical Creation: the world came out of silence/nothingness Hesiodʼs pre-history {Hesiodʼs Five Ages of Man) Golden Age - no sorrow, toil, grief Silver Age - Sin, No Sacrifices to Gods Bronze Age - Violent Race of Warriors Heroic Age - ʻgod-like race of hero-menʼ Iron Age - ʻmen never rest from labour and sorrow by day, and from perishing by nightʼ [we are now in Iron Age] What was lost at Eden? 2 basic patterns of decline & recovery: A. Exile & Restoration (horizontal narrative) ▯ geographic limitations - kicked out, having to so somewhere else. Garden/Promised Land -- Wilderness/Egypt/Babylon B. Fall to Resurrection (vertical narrative) Paradise/Christ (Last Adam) ▯ ▯ | World/First Adam Recovery Narratives (from Carolyn Merchantʼs “The Fall From Eden”) Upward (steep decline, gradual recovery) Biblical - Eden, Fall, Birth of Christ, Heaven Modernist - Golden Age, Dark Ages, Renaissance, Capitalism Downward (gradual decline, steep recovery) Environmentalist - Pristine Wilderness, Ecological Crisis, Environmental Movement, Restored Earth Feminist - Matriarchy/Equality, Patriarchy, Feminist Movement, Emancipation Equality significance: The Bible influences the way we tell stories on a macro level all above narratives are images or mirror images of Biblical narrative this proves we tend to think in ʻdecline and recoveryʼ terms (in grand narratives). we tell the same story in different categories. Pentateuch first five books of the Hebrew Torah. Greek pentateuchos “five scrolls” Genesis - Deuteronomy Moses has traditionally been acknowledge as the author. received on Mt. Sanai significance: incorporates creation, fall, flood, covenant with Abraham, the Exodus, Jewish law & commands for temple/ark of covenant given to Moses. the covenant & law -> basis for the rest of the Bible East Adam & Eve were expelled from the East gate (where they met other people) Eden - located in the ʻeastʼ - Cain was banished East of Eden - Gen 29-30, Jacob travels East - artwork of Joseph & Potipharʼs Wife - Joseph is escaping to the right (east) contrasting connotation: Job in Edom. East = hidden wisdom (garden, wisdom, and riches found in the east) Eden - the garden where God placed Adam & Eve to work and live (Genesis 1) - location of the tree of knowledge of good and evil - they were exiled out of the east gate - represents the Promised Land, Paradise (Heaven). an example of the end configuring the beginning. - Odd history of the location of the garden of Eden (one way the fall has affected Western Culture) - belief the tree of life still exists, coincides with Myan myths. - historically, explorers of the East were looking for the garden of Eden. people thought it was a physical location that could be rediscovered. search for Eden: search for eternal life. speaks to basic human experiences: fear of death, hope for something after death, cures for cancer Genesis 1:26-28 - creation of man (Adam) in Godʼs image - God commands them to multiply and “have dominion” over land and animals [ʻsubduing the earthʼ article] Adam/Christ Fall to Resurrection (vertical narrative) Paradise/Christ (Last Adam) ▯ ▯ | World/First Adam Christ = Last Adam - depicted in Michelangeloʼs Temptation, Creation of Eve, and Creation of Adam (Sistine Chapel) Eve/Mary Gary Anderson Reading (“...Was Eve Mary”?) Mary = the Second Eve - depicted in Michelangeloʼs Temptation, Creation of Eve, and Creation of Adam (Sistine Chapel) - specifically in ʻcreation of adamʼ - Eve looks longingly at Adam, embraced in Godʼs arms. God is holding a child (Christ) - ʻcreation of eveʼ - can be interpreted as Christ and Mary. - Mary (as the symbol of church) emerges from the rib of Christ on the cross - Eve emerges from the rib of Adam *interpretation depends on perspective if read just in the context of Genesis 3, Eve is culprit, end of story. if read in context of NT - through the womb of this woman human will merit salvation Concupiscence (Lust) - thought to have entered the world at the Fall - Western Interpretation of the fall: about sexuality, lust, loss of control (see Augustine) - sexual lust is one example of lust at large (e.g. for power) - lust as a form of intoxication (a high) - Augustine proposes marriage as a way of dealing with lust Augustine Founding Church Father, 354-450 CE author of “City of God” - distinguished between the Earthly City & the City of God (corrupt vs. everlasting) His writing contributed to the discussion of politics vs. religion (separation of Church and State) during his time period. supported the separation. - discusses the entrance of Lust into the garden at the Fall - sexual lust symbolized (for him) lust in general - asserts prior to the fall humans could control their sexual desires, orgasm, etc - sexuality = loss of human capacity to control body Icebreaker Poster (Advertisement) - representation of the Fall in Western Culture - raises questions of sexuality, gender, shame, lust - also alludes to David statue (Michelangelo) Cain Cain & Abel - Genesis 4 (right after the Fall) Cain is Abelʼs older brother, the son of Adam and Eve. - God regarded Abelʼs offering of sheep, but did not regard Cainʼs offering from the garden. - Cain kills Abel. [first Biblical murder] When God asks him about where Abel is, he says he doesnʼt know - punishment: cursed from the ground. the ground shall not yield to him its strength. he shall be a fugitive and wanderer. - he settled in the land of Nod, East of Eden. Enoch (Gen 5:18 - 24) “Enoch walked with God and was no more.” He walked with God as Adam and Eve did (Sept. 22nd lecture) Adamʼs son = Seth -> his genealogies bring the figure of Enoch (who walked with God), in seventh generation of Adam. “Enoch walked with God, and he was not, for God took him” - Seth was Eveʼs son that was appointed in place of Abel after he was murdered. Noah Sept. 22nd Lecture Genesis 5-11 - descendent of Adam God wanted to rid the world of its corruption, so called Noah to build an Ark that would protect him and his family from the flood that would destroy the earth. - God makes a covenant with Noah that he will not curse man again from his sons come Israel and their adversaries: Hamʼs descendants: Egypt, Canaan, Babylon Shemʼs descendent: Abraham (Israel) - reading “Biblical Justification for American Slavery” Flood Biblical Account - Genesis 6-9 - separates primeval history from Abrahamic narrative - 68 cultural groups have flood stories that function as a separators between the Fall and the gradual rise. - also separates pre-history from history Other Flood Heroes: Gilgamesh (Ninevah 7th C BCE) ▯ ▯ ▯ Evan Almighty (21st C) ▯ ▯ ▯ George McCreedy Price - preserving knowledge before the flood, tried to prove its historical/geologic validity Curse of Ham (Gen. 9:22-27) - Noahʼs youngest son - he sees Noah naked (does not cover his face) and tells his brothers (Shem and Japheth) Hamʼs genealogy brings: - Egyptians (oppress Israelites) - Canaanites (were in the Promised Land, and were killed by Israelites) - Babylonians (Israel was exiled to Babylon) all peoples in conflict with Israel are traced back to Ham [people look back at these genealogies as a Biblical justification for Racism] reading: - Hamʼs curse - Biblical justification for racial slavery Genesis 9 is specifically associated with black servitude Hamʼs descendants thought to have developed dark skin colonial period (1600s) ʻcurse of Hamʼ was being employed in America as a sanction for black enslavement Abraham Genesis 12: God calls Abraham and forms a covenant with him that will lead to the foundation of Israel as Godʼs people. “Father of the Faith” - he alters in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam - Judaism: Abrahamʼs covenant with God marked by circumcision - Christianity: Abrahamʼs covenant with God marked by faith/belief (circumcision not necessary) - Islam: Abraham is the first monotheist Melchizedek Gen 14. King of Salem - comes from Jerusalem to meet with Abraham after a battle, brings him bread and wine. - “priest of God most high” - he blesses Abraham and God (he had just been delivered from his enemies) Abraham gives him a tenth of everything - no genealogy - his names means “priest” and “king” - seeds his post to Abraham - these verses look toward the establishment of Jerusalem (as the site of the temple where God would dwell) - offers Abraham bread and wine, no genealogy, priest & king = seen as a Christ figure by Christians [interpretation based from the standpoint of oneʼs own story] Oaks of Mamre Genesis 18 - the Lord appears to Abraham by the Oaks of Mamre (in the form of 3 men) he is sitting by his tent and 3 men appear, he feeds them. God promises that Sarah will have a son within a year. Sarah laughs to herself when she hears this, God says she doesnʼt trust Him. Sodom & Gomorrah Genesis 18 -19 Luke 10:1-12 - a city city where Lot lived. he was visited by 2 angels, men of Sodom tried to rape the angels/men, Lot offers his daughters to them instead. the angels tell Lot to leave Sodom with his family. God destroys the city. Lotʼs wife looks back and is turned into a pillar of salt. - Genesis 18: the 2 angels warn Abraham first Christians view the 2 angels as a representation of the trinity (he entertained the trinity) - Abrahamʼs hospitality vs. Lotʼs hospitality Lotʼs Daughters Lot - Abrahamʼs nephew Genesis 19 - give birth to Moabites and Ammonites (aliens to Israel) - Ruth descends from Moab (Ruth - David - Christ) redemption of incest. - daughters represent female subjectivity in order to sustain civilization - example of female agency over men (The Lot Complex) Luke 10:1-12 Jesus sends out his disciple. He tells them not to bring anything with them, to eat and drink what the people provide them. if the town doesnʼt receive you, donʼt give them your peace. “it will be more bearable on that day for Sodom than for that town.” - relates to Hospitality, Sodom & Gomorrah - saying that if people are not hospitable, they will be destroyed by God. inhospitality- grave sin. Hospitality Genesis 19 - Lot gives his daughters instead of his guests - he sees safety of his visitors as sacred duty - some argue the story of Sodom and Gommorah is about hospitality (though this argument doesnʼt hold up, because Lot gives up his daughters, which is not hospitable) Binding/ʻSacrificeʼ of Isaac Genesis 22:1-19 - God tests Abraham by asking him to sacrifice Isaac on Mt. Moriah. Abraham obeys, and right before he kills him an angel stops him. His faith is proved right, and he is trusted to be the founding father of Israel. - raises ethical issues. “fraught with background” - relates to: Kierkegaardʼs “Prelude” Soren Kierkegaard, Fear and Trembling Isaacʼs Sacrifice, Genesis 22:1-19 - 4 versions of the sacrifice of Isaac - he follows each with an explanatory allegory of weaning children from their mothers - the allegory illustrates how one deals with retaining/losing their faith - the first 3 & final paragraphs: reflect how a man who has a child has misunderstood the story of Isaac and Abraham - other paragraphs: conflicting universal ethics (obedience vs. infanticide) Marc Chagall, The Sacrifice of Isaac (painting) [sept. 27th slides] Marc Chagall: 20th C artist Sacrifice of Isaac c. 1960s - a depiction of Abraham about to sacrifice Isaac (knife in hand), and the angel stopping him. - Sarah is watching - above, a depiction of Christ carrying the cross (Mt. Moriah was associated with Calvary) - red paint flows from the Christ figure onto Abraham. this signifies Christʼs blood as the sacrifice for all peoples. Covenant made with Abraham to form Israel would eventually extend to all peoples. - likens Christʼs sacrifice with Isaacʼs sacrifice - Christian interpretation of the Abraham and Isaac story Mt. Moriah Genesis 22:1-19 - the location of Isaacʼs almost-sacrifice - Christians liken it to the mountain where Christ was sacrificed Iphigenia Genesis 22:1-19 - relates to the sacrifice of Isaac - Agememmnon sacrifices his daughter (Iphigenia) to get the sailboats working again, so that he can win the war. The purpose of the sacrifice is political - contrastingly, there is no ʻgainʼ from Isaacʼs death - it was a test of faith (this raises ethical issues) - Sept. 27th slides: 1st Century Pompeii Wall painting Sacrifice of Iphigenia Genesis 25:21-23 - God answerʼs Isaacʼs prayer and Rebekah conceived twins. they fought even within her. God told her two divided nations would start from these 2 children, the younger serv
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