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Anthropology - MIDTERM NOTES.docx

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Karen Slonim

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MIDTERM NOTES  50 multiple choice questions  1 hour  Test will be held in three rooms Chapter 1 (introduction to anthropology) - Very important chapter - Should know how the four fields of anthropology differ and are the same - Bolded terms are important (don’t worry about those listed on page 23 with the exception of CRM) - Text boxes that examine ‘anthropologists at work’ are not important - Should have a working knowledge of how the scientific method is employed - Not responsible for material found on pages 30-34  Familiarize yourself with all material presented in lectures  Most important chapter  Terminology, definitions, different approaches within anthropology  Make sure to be comfortable with chapter one  How anthropology across four fields is similar (areas of specialty with exception of all the ones in archaeology)  Appendix in back of book  Do not skim over scientific method (inductive and deductive reasoning) Chapter 2 (Sex and Gender)  Know the difference between sex and gender (and ways of thinking about gender p. 40-41)  Understand the implications of ‘man the hunter’ (p. 41-43)  Case study: Two-spirits: A third gender (p. 45-47)  Do not need to memorize all of case study  How do gender and subsistence intersect (p. 52-65)  What kind of job duties are split by gender  What is the archaeology of gender and examples of engendered research (p. 75-79)  Lecture material - Explorations of the third gender and exceptions to the male/female dichotomy - Not really in readings, more in lecture slides  Desmond Morris - What sort of approach does desmond morris take to understand human behavior - The takeaway message of the film is that men and women are… - Scroll to end of film to find important message Chapter 3 (Food and Nutrition)  Sex and gender readings and food and nutrition readings compliment each other  How subsistence impacts populations (p. 110-129) focus on trends and relationships - Population growth - Ownership - Social stratification - Environment (how human interactions may impact the environment -- ex. Anthropology: The Four Subfields  Major goals of anthropologists: o Understand uniqueness and diversity of human behavior and societies around world o Discover fundamental similarities that link human beings throughout world in past and present  Anthropology: the systematic study of humankind  Stands apart because combines four subfields that connect natural sciences, social sciences and humanities  Ethnocentrism: judging another society by the values and standards of one’s own society  Humans think of their own beliefs, values and norms as preferable  Think of other cultures as less desirable  Oral traditions: many past societies were non literate so knowledge and history was transmitted orally Subfield Description Sub disciplines Connection to others Physical - Research human Paleoanthropology: - Humans’ needs and Anthropology evolution and - Study of human evolution limitations dictated by nature modern human through analysis of fossils - Capacity for culture and variation - Date and compare fossil bones ability to learn sets us apart - Other groups focus - Determine links between modern from other animals on range of physical humans and biological ancestors - Combination of biology and variation in human Primatology: culture allowed humans to populations - Study primates evolve and thrive - Measure body size, - Belong to same biological - natural selection weeded out types, difference in classification as humans humans that did not fit in with skin colours, etc. - Share physical characteristics and cultural developments - Want to explain why evolutionary relationship - Biological aspects of variation occurs Osteology: evolution influenced social life - Play crucial roles in - Study of human skeletons (ex. Children born earlier so police investigations - Can identify murder victims from can fit through birth canal but (develop appearance skeletal remains need more care from parents of murder victims - Want to find out how physical in early life) from bone fragments) characteristics reflect evolutionary - Biology and culture adaptations to different determine health and illness environmental conditions (ex. Foraging vs. agriculture) - Certain diseases cause social issues (ex. AIDS, STDs seen as less desirable people) Archaeology - Examine material - Prehistoric archaeologists: study - Archaeologists reconstruct traces of past artifacts of first humans on earth behavior through study of societies - Historic archaeologists: material remains - Artifacts: material investigate artifacts of societies - Can reveal ways of life that products of former from more recent past are not longer observable societies that provide - Ethnoarchaeology: study of - Provide understanding of clues to the past material artifacts from past and long-term cultural changes - Inform us about observations of modern people - Contribute to understanding culture of past who use or have symbolic meaning of ecology, how states and societies (values, for artifacts cities arose, gender roles, beliefs, norms) - Cultural resource management economic and social - Ex. Stones, potter, (CRM): type of archaeology organization glass show how past concerned with management and - Links the past and present societies ate meals, assessment of significant cultural - DNA can rule out what used in houses resources relationships but biological and work, etc. - People steal archaeological traits and cultural traditions evidence for personal collections can still show connection - Removing artifact from context - Can find out when language cheats everyone of its knowledge began to develop by tools - Artifacts are rare, finite resource made around that time (if could be made by imitation or needed explanation Linguistic - Linguistics: the Structural Linguistics: - Language shows a lot about a Anthropology study of language - Compare grammatical patterns culture (ex. Different terms for - Study relationship (or linguistic elements) to learn different statuses of people between language how language are the show social inequality) and culture same/different - Gender patterns in speech - How human brain - Explore how language works show different social roles for acquires and uses Sociolinguistics: men and women language - Examine connection between - Shows who is expected to - How used within language and social behavior in have good knowledge by societies different cultures words/grammar they use - Work with Historical Linguistics: - Some people have/know government agencies - Compare and classify different more words than others and immigrants to languages - Can show values, document - Analyze grammatical structure assumptions and interests of a disappearing and sounds of languages culture (ex. Arctic people have languages - Can see how language changes more words to describe ice over time, historical links between and snow, German people languages have more words to describe taste and colours of beer) Cultural - Examine
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