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Chapter 6 - Exam Review Notes

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Ann Herring

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Chapter 6 - Exam Notes What is A Primate? - Order of class mammalia - 3 prominent tendencies 1. Adaptations for life in trees (arboreal) - Versatile Skeletal Structure --> mobility and flexibility - Enhanced sense of touch - Enhanced sense of vision - Reduced reliance on smell and hearning 2. Dietary Plasticity (eat variety of foods) 3. Increase Parental Investment (a lot of effort in taking care of offspring) Why Study Primates? - Demonstrates what is distinctively human (how we are similar and different) - Analogies for human ancestors (models) - Primatologists study primates(eating/sexual behaviour, communication, social behaviour) Common Primate Traits 1. Relative and absolute large brain sizes - Large in relation to body weight and size (not relative brain size) - Well developed (visual and processing tactile sensation) * Integration of what we see and feel 2. Opposable thumbs 3. Prehensile hands and fingers - 5 separate flexible digits on each hand and foot (Pentadactyly) - Opposable big thumb/toe - Grasping hands and feet (used as exploratory tools) - Nails (not claws) & tactile pads --> enhanced touch 4. Clavicle - From early mammals - Maintains positioning of arms and strut for bracing body 5. Separate radius and ulna - 2 bones of forearm are separate (rotate easily) 6. Binocular and stereoscopic vision - Enclosed eye orbits --"allowed for 3D perception - 3D where vision from our right and left eye overlap (R and L side independently are 2D) - Shortened snout --" reduced reliance on smell - Eyes more to front of bodies (blind spot --> advantage outweighs disadvantage) Dietary Plasticity - Reduced number of teeth - Multiple tooth types - Generalized Detention - Human Dental Formula --> 1 - Some primates have tooth comb * Modification of incisors, canines --> grooming purpose to clean fur - Sectoral premolar --> adapted for cutting Parental Investment - Longer period in between births - Few offspring at a time - Increased parental care --> extended care of offspring NO SINGLE FEATURE DISTINGUSSHED PRIMATES FROM OTHER MAMMALS, THERE ARE A NUMBER OF FEATURES SHARED BY MOST PRIMATES Primates... - General diet - Arboreal - Highly adaptive - Fossil records show greater distribution of fossils in past (80% tropical rainforest) * Largely restricted to these areas --> need food high in nutrients and energy PRIMATE TAXONOMY Order: Primates Sub Order: Prosimians (lemurs, tarsiers, lorises, galagos) Sub Order: Anthropoids (New World Monkeys, Old World Monkeys, Apes, Humans) 1. Prosimians - Before apes - 8 living families (5 Madagascar) - Retention of primitive features * Features present in multiple species within a taxonomic group - Active at night (most nocturnal) --> large eyes - Relatively long noses with moist snouts (rhinarium) - High dependence on hearing and smell -
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