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Bio 1M03 - Exam Notes (Entire Course Notes)

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Ben Evans

 Evidence of evolution (changes through time, extinction, vestigial traits, inter-relatedness)  Evidence of natural selection (industrial melanism, antibiotic resistance, beak size in Galapagos finches)  Animals do not do things for the good of the species (but might behave altruistically under particular conditions)  Not all traits are adaptive  Adaptations are constrained by trade-offs as well as genetic and historical factors History  Plato claimed that every organism was an example of a perfect essence or type created by God and that these types were unchanging  Aristotle proposed that species were in a hierarchy based on strength and humans were at the top  Jean-Baptists Lamarck proposed the first formal theory of evolution o characteristics that are not used are lost; characteristics that are used are passed on, including in a state acquired by the parent o ex – blacksmith acquires strong arms from working and will thus have sons with strong arms o experiment – people cut off tails of mice and then had them reproduce but all the offspring kept having tails o There is evidence that characteristics acquired during a parent’s lifetime could be passed on to the offspring via mechanisms that do not involved changes in the nucleotide sequence of the DNA (ie – DNA methylation)  Darwin described evolution as descent with modification  Evolution - they change through time and they have common ancestry Evidence for Change through Time  Trilobite fossils that are 505 million years old (BC)  Hominid footprint fossils that are 3.6 million years old (Tanzania)  Many fossils provide evidence for extinct species  Prehistoric turds and ancient DNA  Artificial selection – speciation in today’s time  Speciation by hybridization  Speciation of fruit flies by divergence of host plant usage  Ring species o Five populations and the one on the left can populate with the one right beside it, that one can populate with the one right beside it, but the two species on the end of the linear relationship overlap but cannot reproduce with each other, only their adjacent populations  Speciation by polyploidization o Genome duplication in African clawed frogs o 36 chromosomes which originated from 18 chromosome < the two 18 chromosome guys fused their genomes and created the 36 chromosome guy  Transitional Forms o as the fossil record has become more complete, many transitional forms have been discovered with traits that are intermediate between earlier and later species  Vestigial Traits
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