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[BIOLOGY 1M03] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 54 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOLOGY 1M03
Professor
Jon Stone
Study Guide
Final

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McMaster
BIOLOGY 1M03
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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BIOLOGY 1M03- Lecture 1- Chapter 1 Biology and the Tree of Life
Key Concepts
Organisms are “alive”
Cell theory involves the idea that all organisms comprise of cells and that cells derive from pre-
existing cells
Theory of evolution by natural selection involves the idea that species change through time
because individuals with particular heritable traits survive and produce offspring more
effectively than other individuals
A phylogenetic tree is a diagram that may be interpreted as representing inferred evolutionary
relationships among species
Biologists ask questions, generate hypotheses to answer them and design experiments to test
the predictions
Scientific Theories
Are comprised of two components
oPatterns observed in the natural world
oMechanisms or processes proposed to produce the patterns
1.2 Cell Theory
A cell is a highly organized compartment bounded by a plasma membrane that contains
concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution
Complete Cell Theory: All organisms are made of cells and all cells come from pre-existing cells
Louis Pasteur demonstrated experimentally that cells arise from cells and NOT by spontaneous
generation (see page 3 of textbook)
Because all cells come from pre-existing cells, all individuals in a population of single-celled
organisms are related by common ancestry
In a multicellular organism, all of cells present descend from pre-existing cells and are connected
by common ancestry
1.3 The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
In 1858 Darwin and Wallace proposed that all species are related by common ancestry and that
the traits characterizing species can be modified from generation to generation
Evolution entails that species are related to one another and their characteristics can change
through time
Darwinian evolution occurs through the process of natural selection
Fitness: Conceptualized as the ability for a typical individual to survive and produce offspring
Adaptation: May refer to a trait that increases the fitness for a typical individual in a particular
environment
Population: A group of individuals of the same species living in the same area
Natural selection occurs when two conditions are met:
1. Individuals within a population vary among themselves in characteristics that are heritable
2. In a particular environment, particular characteristics render individuals possessing them
more effective at surviving or reproducing than are individuals lacking them
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If particular heritable traits lead to increasing success in surviving and producing offspring, then
those traits become more communion the population over time
Population characters change from natural selection operating on individuals
Natural selection acts on individuals, evolutionary change occurs in populations
Evolution occurs when heritable variation leads to differential success in reproduction
In artificial selection, humans select particular individuals to produce the most offspring in a
population, on the basis of particular traits
Repeating this process over generations results in changes in the traits over time (see page 5 in
textbook)
Modern Biology
Modern biology comprises at least two unifying ideas:
1. Cells are the fundamental structural units among organisms
2. Organisms are related through common ancestry and have changed over time as a
consequence from natural selection
1.4 The Tree of Life
The cell theory and theory of evolution by natural selection imply that all species come from
pre-existing species and that all species, past and present, trace their ancestry back to a single
common ancestor
Speciation is a divergence process in which natural selection has caused populations of one
species to diverge to form new species
The tree of life is a diagram that may be interpreted to anger the genealogical relationships
among species, with a single ancestral species at its base
Using Molecules to Understand the Tree of Life
SSU rRNA is nucleic acid that constitutes partially ribosomes (protein producing organelles in
cells)
rRNA sequences should be very similar in closely related organisms but less similar in organisms
that are less closely related; species in the same evolutionary lineage should share particular
changes in rRNA
A phylogenetic tree is a diagram that may be interpreted as depicting these relationships among
organism groups
Groups that may inferred to have shared an immediate common ancestor are hypothesized as
being related closely; other groups are related more distantly
Naming the Tree of Life
The tree of life indicates three major organisms groups; two groups are prokaryotic (bacteria
and archaea) and one is eukaryotic (the eukarya)
A domain represents major groups
1.5 Doing Biology
Biologists test ideas about that way the natural world works by testing the predictions made by
precisely and concisely formulated hypotheses
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