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CMST 2R03 (3)

Final Exam Review

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McMaster University
Communication Studies
Simon Wood

Exam: Dec.12/13 MUSIC 2II3 Exam Format • Post Term Test II: 60% • Term Test II: 20% • Term Test I: 20% • Readings are not cumulative • No listening section on the exam but there are listening style questions J.F. Kennedy Jr. • The in between years coincide with the presidency of J.F. Kennedy Jr., who was a unique choice • He was very young and a catholic (dominated by Protestantism) • His politics were what really made him an outsider, he was a left wing president • The optimism was so great that his presidency became known as Camelot (round table has no head) • “Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country” • Same time as the rise of the Civil Rights Movement under the leadership of Martin Luther King Jr. • In August of 1963 there is a march on Washington where almost 1 million people gathered and Dr. King delivered his “I have a dream” speech • In November 22 1963 JFK takes a trip to Dallas Texas (even Texas loved Kennedy) • They decided that he would drive in an convertible and shots rang out he is shot in the head • We still do not know what happened here and they put it to a lone gunman • There are many theories of what actually happened • The impact of his death was on par with what happened on September 11 (even in Canada) • There were crowds ofAmerican gathered looking at the coverage • The United States was in a profound sense of depression because of this • Coincidentally two months after JFK’s death, The Beatles arrived and everyone went crazy for them because they were very good and they weren’t American • When they appeared on television they took the entire nation out of itself and distracted them England Post WWII • The United States after WWII was a nation experiencing extraordinary prosperity • England was a very different place • The Nazi’s never attempted a land invasion, but they spent four years sitting across the English channel dropping thousands of bombs so by the time the war was over England looked like the war was fought there (cities, factories, rail lines etc.) • All the servicemen come back from Britain and there are no jobs • People still want to be entertained, so they go back to an almost folk-like lifestyle • There’s a difference because this culture is based on pre-existing professional cultures • They are playing music that has a lot in common with American professional music styles • This style became known as Skiffle o Four or five guys all playing acoustic guitar and a drummer o This is folk music but they had drummers o They played copies ofAmerican music o They were filling in until England’s professional music system could get back up and running, which it largely does by the end of the 1950’s The Quarrymen/ The Beatles • They were from Liverpool, which is a port city • There isn’t a huge record industry in England, but one place you could get them was port cities because ships were coming in • They know people don’t have money there is a great black market for chocolate, cigarettes, nylons and records • The band was fronted by a man named John Lennon, and they play a gig in 1957 • Paul McCartney is in the crowd and is impressed with Lennon and they start playing together • Both of them wrote songs, most people were playing songs they heard on records and the radio • They liked doingAmerican rock and roll but they couldn’t do all of the guitar riffs • John and Paul met up with George Harrison on the top of a double decker bus • The other members of the quarrymen began to drop away • By 1959 the three of them are making a lot of money backing up musicians • In 1960 they hire a bass player named Stu Sutcliffe, who didn’t play the bass but looked cool • Later that year they added a permanent drummer named Pete Best • They had also changed their name a few times but they decided on The Beatles • They were essentially splitting their time between Germany in the city of Hamburg (US service personnel stationed there) and Liverpool • They had a ‘Rocker Image,’which was a British interpretation of what the motorcycle gangs wore • They also had a reputation of being tough and nasty • They were playing insane hours and taking a lot of drugs to stay awake • When they weren’t in Hamburg they were in Liverpool, and become popular at The Cavern Club • In July of 1961 Sutcliffe leaves the band and McCartney switches to the bass • Shortly after Sutcliffe dies of a brain hemorrhage • The Beatles have become a very well respect back up band for other people • In late 1961 they record a record with a guy named Tony Sheridan • In Liverpool everyone knew that it was The Beatles but in other areas it was a Tony Sheridan song • Brian Epstein started to getting phone calls in 1961 from the people managing his record stores in Liverpool because people are asking for The Beatles, looking for the Tony Sheridan record • He goes down to see them at the Cavern Club • What he sees are the four guys with the rocker image, but he was struck by their personal charm • He asked to manage them and they said okay • The first thing he did was told them to get rid of the spiting, the swearing and the leather jackets • Keep the sarcasm and the humour • He changes the image of The Beatles to the image that everyone comes to know • In early 1962 Epstein takes them into a recording studio to do a demo tape and then shops it around to various record companies • Nobody touched them because people thought guitar based bands were done • Eventually Epstein did get them signed to EMI on a minor division called Parlophone • They met George Martin at Parlophone, who understood recording studios and had a remarkable ability to capture sound in a recording • He was also a walking history of western classical music, unlimited supply of information and inspiration to the band • George Martin said that they needed to change the drummer so they hired Ringo Starr • They record their first single “Love Me Do,” which Ringo Starr didn’t play on Audio: Please Please Me- The Beatles • 1963 • This song shows a whole bunch of things about the band • Shows how mature they are in song writing, and shows how tight they are as a band • The song is anAABA(internalized song forms not academic musicians) • There is not a single improvised note, every note is exactly where its supposed to be • This is almost a Tin Pan Alley style of attention to the details “The Beatles are Coming” • Through 1963 The Beatles rapidly climb in popularity in England • Proof of their success came at the end of 1963 when they were asked to play the Royal Variety Performance • Largest viewers they had ever had with 26 million people (country with 40 million) • By this point Britain had begun to produce pop stars, all of whom had at some point tried to make a name for themselves in the United States but failed • The Beatles had been trying to make a name for themselves by releasing singles didn’t do well • Epstein wouldn’t take The Beatles to the US until they had a hit • At the end of December they had their first hit with “I Wanna Hold Your Hand” • They started their performances on the Ed Sullivan show • Publicity campaign with the title “The Beatles are Coming” (known as The British Invasion) • 200 years earlier legendary history tells us that as theAmericans were fighting against the English, the English sent an army to invade theAmerican colonies, and as the army came ashore Paul Revere rode through the countryside yelling, “The British are coming!” • The Beatles appear on the Ed Sullivan show in February and are seen by about 70 million people • This was the moment when people realized that it was possible to have a band, write your own songs and be a musician (golden age) The Tours • The tour only lasted two weeks, but during those two weeks they sold over 2 million in albums and 2.5 million in merchandising • The band played in Washington in played an arena, which bands had never done before • They put the stage in the middle and the audience is all around them • This is when the screaming girls begin to appear, which is known as Beatlemania • Two weeks after their appearance The Beatles head home where the mania is even bigger • April of 1964, The Beatles have 12 songs at the same time in the billboard pop top 100, including positions 1-5 at the same time • In the summer of 1964 their first movie comes out “AHard Days Night” • By the time they get to the end of their fourth US tour they have made 65 million • They played a concert at a major outdoor sports center in New York City, which no band had done • People are looking at The Beatles and realizing that the golden age of rock and roll has come back • Their sound becomes known as Mersey Beat because Liverpool is a port city on the Mersey River • That term came to represent bands that came from this area • The Beatles themselves are starting to change • The first indication that things are changing comes in 1965 with their second movie called Help • The film had a soundtrack album, most of the songs were typical The Beatles songs but one song stood out Audio: Yesterday- The Beatles • The song was written by Paul McCartney, which John didn’t like • They have a legal agreement that all their songs are credited together but this was written by Paul • This song marks the first song where only on Beatle is playing (with other musicians) • Martin is beginning to have an effect on Paul • Paul has learned that if you want to be taken seriously you had to deal with the string quartette • This song is more serious, the chord changes are more frequent and the lyrics are profound • To accompany his song he asks George to arrange a string quartet • With this he is announcing that The Beatles are starting to change Change in The Beatles • First, they are beginning to change how they conceptualize themselves, from this point on they increasingly think of themselves as artists (not entertainers or pop musicians) • Second, this is the beginning of the end of The Beatles, because this is where the band begins to split (McCartney vs. Lennon) • Through 1965-1966 they release three albums • Their album art for Rubber Soul, its missing the name of the band (they projected images, and accidentally distorted it and loved it) • Their album art for Revolver, its missing the name of the band, the four members are drawn and then there are thoughts and ideas in photographs coming out of their heads • Nobody was doing this with album covers (making it an experience in itself) • The Beatles are expanding what it means to be creative as a pop musician • Their music was also changing Audio: Tomorrow Never Knows- The Beatles • From Revolver • Composed by John Lennon • Shows all sorts of new things creeping into the bands creative consciousness • First of all, there are no real chord changes in this song • The song is based on a drone, which is a classical instrument of India • Rhythm had been developed intensely in India (no chords) • Everything is based over a single pitch, a drone, which gives a constant haze of sound • Johns lyrics are based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead • John is doing what is called double tracking his vocals o Singer sings the song once and rewinds the tape and listens and tries to match it exactly with a second performance, o If you do it well, what you end up with is something that sounds like there is only one person singing but there is a weird thickness to it because of discrepancies • He is also running it through some effects, through a speaker called a “Leslie” where the speaker spun around as you played the music through it which gave it a wish-washy sound • Really serious studio manipulation • There are some unusual elements, which is described as avant-garde (cutting edge of art, often so cutting age where nobody likes it yet) • They are playing with something called tape loops, they have a whole bunch in the studio and have prepared a bunch of tapes of different sounds • There is a guitar solo that is transformed this way • We are hearing the fact that The Beatles becoming interested in incorporating other elements of cultures into pop music • The Beatles have written a song that could not be performed live (at the time) • They are also becoming very frustrated with live performance and being pop stars • They want to be artists that are taken seriously and want to be able to create whatever they want without having to impose limits on what they perform live • There is clues that they are loosing interest in public performance • Philippines o Its July, and its hot (they are from the North of England) o The Philippines is a dictatorship o They played a show and get a call from the dictator’s wife who wants them to perform at a charity but they say no o Later they turn on the television and there are four place settings for The Beatles with orphans standing around them o On their way to the airport they are attacked by security o The plane is stopped before it takes off and two members of their entourage were taken off at gunpoint o The Beatles are told they need to pay an airport tax, which is exactly what they made at the two concerts they played there (black mailed • In March of 1966 Lennon had given an interview • They started talking about religion and he made an observation that major religions were so focused on power and control, that they were beginning to loose young people • Young people would be more interested in going to a Beatles concert than church • “Right now we’re probably more popular than Jesus” • The interview came out and no one cared because this was his way of talking • The Beatles came to the United States and the quote was published without context • The firestorm of hatred was unbelievable (especially in the South) • The tour comes to an end inAugust in San Francisco • They return to England announce that they are retiring from public performance • For the better part of a year they work on an album Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band • Summer of 1967 they release it • This album marks a major shift in Western popular music • The shift from Rock and Roll, to Rock, which is music that wants to be taken far more seriously • One of the things we find on this album is all of the lyrics on the album cover • Their expectation is that you are going to sit down with the album cover and really listen The British Blues Revival • Alot of the bands that followed in the footsteps of The Beatles tended to come from the North of England (in the major industrial areas) • London was based onAmerican R&B, which is the British Blues Revival • Blues has fallen out of fashion in the United States (dark days before Civil Rights Movement) • There were a lot of people of the black community that didn’t want to look back (slave music) • But there was a lot of interest in R&B in the UK (especially in London) • London is also a major port, which again had ships coming in with records • In London a whole sub culture develops that is fascinated with R&B • Two very different groups (created by adult black artists and listened to by young white kids) • The economy was rough • What jobs were available tended to go to adults, so young white teenagers feel kinship with R&B because of the idea of marginalization • Life is not that great and opportunities are not that rich, but make the best with what you have • There are tours of blues artists coming over to England during the 1950’s • First R&B tour comes from Chess Records with Muddy Waters, which turned him into an icon The Rolling Stones • Brian Jones was the leader of the band and he loved the blues • They played their first gig in the summer of 1962 at the Marquee Blue in London • Right from the beginning there were problems • Because Brian Jones was the leader he insisted on taking more money, staying in nicer hotels etc., which put up a wall between him and the band • Andrew Loog Oldham becomes their manager in 1963 and changed the direction of the band • Oldham says that we are going to push that and make them the anti-Beatles • He had noticed that when Mick Jagger sang he looks dangerous (doesn’t look level) • He tells them not to smile when people take their photo (make yourself unpleasant) and this works • The Rolling Stones are “like The Beatles, for ugly people” • The Rolling Stones get signed in 1963 with DECCARecords with Dick Rowe (turned down The Beatles) • So they start recording but they are doing covers from 1963-1963 (Chuck Berry, Buddy Holly, Willie Dixon [R&B]) and not writing their own songs • Oldham recognizes that there is a split in the band • The rest of the band want to do more conventional stuff and write their own songs • Finally Oldham gets Mick and Keith to sit with Lennon and McCartney and watch them write • They wrote a song for the Rolling Stones called “I Wanna be Your Man” • In 1964 the Rolling Stones record their first full album called “England’s Newest Hit Makers” • Most of the songs on the album are R&B covers Audio: King Bee- The Rolling Stones • 1964 • Originally by anAfricanAmerican man named Slim Harpo in 1957 • Last time we heard anything that sounded like this was the original version of Hound Dog • The audience for R&R is starting to get a little bit older and what could be included in a song is starting to stretch • Now we have adult relationships that are now actually making it though the boundary and into the world of R&R • Hard to picture a bunch of white kids singing this • Mick is capturing theAmerican accent to be true to the original recordings Audio: I Cant Get no Satisfaction- The Rolling Stones • 1965 • First number one hit with an original song in the United States • Very different musical sound and the performance style from The Beatles • The Rolling Stones are drawing much more onAfricanAmerican culture, energy and aggression What Happened to Brian Jones? • The struggle between Brian and the band was clear he was left more on the side lines • Through 1967-1968 he is contributing less and less, has nothing to do with the original writing, power is in the hands of Mick Jagger and Keith Richards • Brian Jones was getting involved in a lot of drugs and was getting arrested a lot • In the Spring of 1969 The Rolling Stones announced a United States Tour and Jones cant get a work visa (because of drug charges) so he couldn’t go on the tour • The other members of the band decided that this was the opportunity to fire him • In June of 1969 Brian Jones publically announces that he is leaving the Rolling Stones and less than a month later he was found at the bottom of his swimming pool (drinking and drugs) • The band replaces him with a man named Ron Woods The Beatles or The Rolling Stones • Their fan bases were very different bands • People that liked The Beatles didn’t like the Rolling Stones and vice versa • Comparison Audio: Lets Spend the Night Together-The Rolling Stones o 1967 o Not a bad performance, but was a very different approach o Each time they play it, it is a little bit different • Comparison Audio: Please Please Me- The Beatles o Remarkably controlled o There is not a note out of place • This is why the fan bases are so distinct • These are two different philosophies at work here • There has been a general distinction going back decades, that when you look at the music of black culture… the process is the key • Play a song one way because it makes sense in the moment • The Rolling Stones are process oriented • The Beatles have are object oriented • Until this moment every time we have talked about process vs. product there has been a race line drawn between these two (process is black and product is white) • After Chuck Berry and Elvis Presley and the lines have been blurred The Yardbirds • Another important part of the British blues revival • They were notable for a string of musicians that went through their ranks • Their original guitar player was Eric Clapton, who based his music on the style of Muddy Waters • The Yardbirds turned to more pop material and Clapton grew unhappy with the band and decided to leave to form a group called Creem and solo • He was replaced by Jeff Beck, who had debilitating stage fright, and dealt with this with medication and alcohol, which meant that he was unreliable • The band replaced Jeff on guitar with Jimmy Page • All three of these musician go on to become tremendously influential • Jimmy Page when he joined he was very busy as a studio musician and gave this up for the Yardbirds, but they all called it quits • When they decided this they were about to do a tour of Scandinavia • Page asked if he can play these gigs under the name “The New Yardbirds” with new members • The tour was very successful • When they got back from the tour, they decided they were going to stay together • They became Led Zepplin The Who • Also considered to be a part of the British blues revival but it was an awkward fit because the band never had as strong of a blues influence in their work • Established themselves with a British Subculture called The Mods (Modernists) • “The Rockers” were in conflict with “The Mods” • Mods were very sharp dressers and drove around on Vespa scooters • The Who was big with the Mods, and they begin to take on elements of Mod subculture Audio: My Generation- The Who • This is the angriest song we have heard so far • The drummer beat his drums a lot harder than everyone else • They were modeling after the Mod culture • The lyric “hope I die before I get old” • Britain is still nowhere near the prosperity that the United States have, and there are a lot of young people that are looking to their future and not seeing anything to look forward to • You’d rather die than be like your parents • One of the things that was very important in Mod culture was the use of amphetamines and to go dancing and when you take too much everything starts to speed up so people start to talk to fast and start stuttering • By putting this stutter in the lyrics they are explicitly referencing drug use but the only people that understand this is the people of this culture The Who Concert • Stage lights are seen • They destroyed their instruments at the end of their concerts (Pete Townshend) • Keith Moon would put small explosives in his drums • You’re making a really big statement and are sealing that moment with a toast • When these guys demolish their equipment, it’s the equipment they used to create the concert • They make a statement about the nature of music and performance because the concert that you just saw can never be reproduced because these instruments no longer exist • They also question what is valuable • What was valuable was the musical moment and the experience • They were asking really deep questions about what performance really was Soul to Funk • This is what’s going on in theAfricanAmerican culture during the 1960’s • Very much tied to the Civil Rights movement and a conscious effort • By the late 1950’s Civil Rights has actually made some gains • Collectively as a culture that is now looking forward • For many, R&B was seen as yesterdays music • The community is becoming more sophisticated and they need music that represents their future • Anew sound emerges and this sound becomes known as soul (more contemporary and sophisticated) • One of the things that was common was that the influence came out of the church (distinctive) • This was going to be a music for dancing and having a party because it had a solid rhythmic field and made use of something called back beat • The music we have listened to has four beats per bar • Backbeat is placing a lot of influences on beats two and four, which has a lot more energy • Putting the emphasis on beats one and three, which has a lot more of a solid feel • It wanted to be more sophisticated and didn’t want the loose edges of R&B • Much more worked out arrangements with cleaned up lyrics • Centers for Soul Music Production o Motown Records in Detroit o Stax Records in Memphis o FAME Studio in Muscle ShoalsAlabama Motown • Detroit Michigan used to be the center of the motor industry • Founded by Berry Gordy • Motown was the largest and most successful company owned by an AfricanAmerican • This was often pointed out and shown as an example of the fact that AfricanAmericans could achieve all of the same things that white people could given the same opportunities • He based his company on his experience in automotive plants • Gordy wanted the philosophy of TPAand do it all in a single building • The idea was simple, raw talent comes in one door and a polished artist with songs comes out • Hired the best song writers they could: Holland/Dozier/Holland and Smokey Robinson • He wanted to prepare his artists for the very highest of stages • He hired a woman from a finishing school named Maine Powell • He hired a choreographer named ChollyAtkins • He hired a house band called The Funk Brothers • The singers might change but everything behind it would not • Berry was accused of culturally whitening his artists Audio: You Better Shop Around- Smokey and the Miracles • 1961 • Smokey does become an important Motown star but he was actually more important as a song writer and producer of other peoples material at Motown • He really is the number two guy at Motown after Gordy • During this performance Smokey is always making eye contact with the camera • They are very small movements • There is a lot of control here • They were all dressed very well • Motown was Hitsville USA The Sound of Motown • By this time The Beatles had arrived • Bands are now a possibility again, but Motown doesn’t go that way • It sticks with the TPAtradition where most of the artists coming out of Motown are individuals or vocal groups • The musicians are very low in terms of their importance Audio: Stop in the Name of Love -The Supremes • The leader was Diana Ross because she was more marketable to white audiences (smaller voice) even though another remember was a stronger singer • Instrument choices are important as well • By the 1960’s jazz music was a respected art form • They include the vibraphone in this song because it is an indicator of class and sophistication • Element of black culture that had a lot of respect • New urban sophistication of black culture looking forward • AfricanAmerican artists have recorded in recording studios that do not have the same technology • By an large the white records have a slightly clearer high frequency range • Motown records uses the tambourine constantly to make use of the high frequency to show that they have this up to date technology • Makes it sound like Berry Gordy is targeting white audiences specifically • At its peak Motown was selling over 70% of its records to white audiences • It does continue on but falls on harder times during the 1970’s Atlantic Records • Jerry Wexler o Wexler came up with the term R&B to replace race o Shortly after he took a job at Atlantic records • Atlantic was technically an independent • Atlantic signed and promoted black artists when none of the majors would touch them • One of the artists that Wexler signed was Ray Charles • Wexler was also a big believer in matching artists with the right recording studio and atmosphere • He had come across some recordings from Stax Records in Memphis • Alot of artists signed toAtlantic worked at STAX STAX • Owned by Jim Stewart and EstelleAxton (hence STAX) • Originally called Satellite Records • STAX had a particular way of working and a particular sound • Like Motown, STAX used a house band, which was called Booker T and the M.G.s, which was an interracial band in a controversial time • There were places that they could not stay at the same hotel or play together • Motown used multi track recording but STAX did not, even when it was the norm • STAX did not even record in stereo, they recorded in mono (one track on one speaker) • STAX was built in an old movie theater, and the speaker they used was the movie speaker • All the musicians would go into the studio and play • When they were done they would come back into the control room and listen to each of the takes and choose which one they liked • In fact, there are STAX records where there are mistakes on the recording • STAX was much more interested in the energy of the recording, even to the point if there was a small error on it, that would be the record that was sent out Audio: Try a Little Tenderness- Otis Redding • 1966 • Recorded with the Bar-K’s (second string band) • Very different performance from what we saw with Smokey Robinson • Otis actually has his eyes closed a lot because he is entirely focused on his performance • STAX was Soulsville USA • STAX was interesting in attracting an audience that loved soul music • The focus is much more on the musical aspect of the performance than physical presentation • Otis is sweating, Motown artists never sweat • On one hand it shows a lack of control on the other it shows engagement (cultural values) • Otis didn’t write this song, it was a TPAsong (had been recorded by Bing Crosby) • Shows that soul isn’t about how you compose a song, its about how you perform the song • Otis had really only just started his career at this point • Very tragically Otis and most of the musicians in the Bar-K’s died in a plane crash Audio: Soul Man- Sam and Dave • 1967 • STAX Records • This is where the term soul becomes an all purpose euphemism for being black • Being an optimistic and forward looking vision of black culture • There are a lot of things in this song that are in the gospel and R&B camp • There is a mistake o Happens at the beginning of the second verse o Horn players are supposed to play at the end of the 4 beat o When they were recording they had a brain freeze and omit it • This was a small mistake of omission so they just kept this recording • Very different way of approaching music • Object orientation vs. process • Motown is object orientated and STAX is processed orientation • By 1967 the sound of soul music is beginning to change with more openly political because civil rights has stalled • Sam and Dave are still singing optimistically, but the reality forAfrican American communities has changed significantly • The call for equal rights is urgent Audio: Respect-Aretha Franklin • 1967 • She learned how to sing in the church • She had begun to work on a mainstream career in 1962 and they tried to make her look very sophisticated, but she was not happy with these recording • She was also a good piano player and she couldn’t play because of the way they were trying to make her look • She is signed toAtlantic Records in 1966 by Wexler and is now known as the Queen of Soul • Respect had been composed by Otis Redding in 1965 but was never a big hit for him • The original version was a song about a relationship butAretha changed the meaning • It became a voice representing the entireAfricanAmerican community demanding that which the law said was already theirs • This song becomes an important element for the Women’s Movement • Civil rights was at a halt and there were race riots in the United States • AfricanAmerican culture begins to turn away from the idea of the solution coming from the white mainstream • They turn inwards and decide to remakeAfrican American identity with the emphasis onAfrica • AfricanAmerican music changes from soul to funk Funk and James Brown • The sound is created almost entirely by James Brown (the godfather of soul, soul brother number one, the hardest working man in show business) • He had his first hit in 1956 with a song called “Please, Please, Please,” which was the beginning of soul music • In 1963 he recorded an album called “Live at theApollo”, which was one of the most important stages in black culture • One of the first albums recorded by anAfricanAmerican artist to sell over 1 million copies • Big hit with black audiences, they cross over and are important to white audiences as well Audio: I feel Good- James Brown • 1965 Verse 1 Verse 2 Verse 3 Verse 4 12-Bar Blues 12-Bar Blues 4 Bar Break 12-Bar Blues 8 Bar Break A A B A • This is based on a 12 bar blues, but is also anAABA • All of the songs that he writes that cross over and are hits with both black and white audiences are this format • James said “black folks like the blues, white folks like a little something different in the middle” • This shows that he was totally aware of what he was doing Race Riots: The Long Hot Summer • Starts at the end of 1963 with the assassination of Kennedy because the administrations that fall him are not sympathetic to civil rights • Within the civil rights movement there is fracturing and splintering • Even by the early 1960’s there were a small group that was willing to do whatever was required • The most visible member of this was Malcolm X • AfricanAmericans should not accept any help from whites • Malcolm X eventually softened his views but by 1965 he is assassinated, and things spiral out • In 1965-1967 there is an series of very violent and widespread race riots • The worst came in the summer of 1967 • Known as the long hot summer, when there were 159 major riots inAmerican cities • The worst was in Detroit, which lasts 3 days • When it is done almost 50 people are dead, over 1,000 people have been injured, over 7,000 arrested, and the police are overwhelmed and the army is called in • By the time the riot is over there are over 10,000 US soldiers patrolling the streets of Detroit • 19 square miles of Detroit have been burnt to the ground • The leader of non-violence Martin Luther King is assassinatedApril 4 1968 in Memphis • This is when we see the militant side of the civil rights come to the fore • The Black Panthers o Enough is enough o Any measure should be taken o Non-violence is not working • “Back toAfrica” movement started by Marcus Garvey • He formed the Black Star Line, which was a shipping company that would transport all African Americans back to Africa • In the 60’s very little would be available about what life was like in these other places • What they do in this time period is playing up the stereotypes ofAfricanAmericans • There were changes in food, fashion and hair styles • Alot of people actually changed their names because they called them their slave names and took on a new one (Cassius Clay changed to MohammadAli) • Soul music was an important part of black culture • James Brown creates a new style of music known as funk Audio: Say it Loud (I’m Black and I’m Proud)- James Brown • 1968 Audio: Get up (I feel like being a) Sex Machine- James Brown • 1970 • One of the things we can say is that chords are no longer that important • No chords, no melody, but this is still a really great song • James has written a song and created a style of music, where he has de-privileged melody and harmony because it is European • Most of what we hear is centered on the idea of rhythm and articulation (how the note is sung) • He is playing into a fairly common stereotype, being that the music ofAfrican doesn’t have much in the way of harmony and melody (which is not true entirely) • He is treating his group in a way a WestAfrican drum group works • The first thing we hear is the rest of the band, which shows community • James is the master drummer that counts it off, but he asks permission because its community • Each player has a percussion instrument, and each has a fairly simple rhythm but when they are layered they create a complicated texture, which is called an interlocking groove • Once this interlocking grove is established the master drummer solos • Every time they play this it will be different • The only structure that matters is the two bar interlocking groove called a riff • Interpreting what he believes to be an accurate representation of West African music • The pleasure is now back to cycles • There is actually a lot of truth to what he’s doing and this in funk • For several years funk completely alienates white audiences and James Brown looses his white audience over night when he switches to funk The Folk Revival • People who were self-taught or learned by listening to the elders in their community • Simply doing music the way they learned from the generation before them • We are no longer talking about folk (lower case), we are talking about Folk (upper case) • It looks and sounds the same, but with professional musicians • People that are connected with the idea of the market • They have to be extraordinarily self-conscious to make themselves look like they’re not th • Emerges in the early part of the 20 century • It is linked to the union movement, music of the everyday man • Unions are very strong in the United States (particularly before WWII) Woody Guthrie • Presents us with the paradigm of the Folk musician • Solo musician with an acoustic guitar that says “this machine kills fascists” • Fascism in general is considered to be an ultra-right wing political ideology o Smaller government o Focus on the individual • Unions were much more to the left wing • Machine is used because people working in factories an
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