Chapter 9 – Leadership
What is Leadership?
Leadership – the influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an
Strategic leadership – leadership that involves the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think
strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the organization.
Are Leaders Born? The Search for Leadership Traits
Traits – individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability, and personality
The Behaviour of Leaders
Consideration and Initiating Structure
• Consideration – the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and
respect for employees
• Initiating structure – the degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment
The Consequence of Consideration and Structure
• Consideration tends to be more strongly related to follower satisfaction (leader satisfaction and job
satisfaction), motivation, and leader effectiveness, while initiating structure is slightly more strongly
related to leader job performance and group performance.
Leader Reward and Punishment Behaviours
• Leader reward behaviour – the leader’s use of compliments, tangible benefits, and deserved special
• Leader punishment behaviour – the leader’s use of reprimands or unfavourable task assignments and
the active withholding of rewards
Situational Theories of Leadership
Fielder’s Contingency Theory and Cognitive Resource Theory
• Contingency theory – Fred Fiedler’s theory that states that the association between leadership
orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for exerting
• Leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on (depend on) the extent to which the
situation is favourable for the exertion of influence.
• Least preferred co-worker – a current or past co-worker with whom a leader has had a difficult time
accomplishing a task.
Situational favourableness – is the contingency part of Contingency theory, it specifies when a particular
LPC orientation should contribute most to group effectiveness. Factors that affect situational
• Leader-member relations
• Task Structure
• Position Structure
Cognitive resource theory – a leadership theory that focuses on the conditions in which a leader’s
cognitive resources (intelligence, expertise, and experience) contribute to effective leadership
House’s Path-Goal Theory
Path-Goal Theory – Robert House’s theory concerned with the situations under which various leader
behaviours (directive, supportive, participative, achievement-oriented) are most effective.
Leader Behaviour – path-goal theory is concerned with the following four specific kinds of leader
behaviour: Directive behaviour, Supportive behaviour, Participative behaviour, Achievement-oriented behaviour
Situational Factors – path-goal theory has concerned itself with two primary classes of situational factors
– employee characteristics and environmental factors.
Leader Behaviour Situational Factors Employee
Directive Employee Outcomes
Supportive Characteristics Job Satisfaction
Achievement-Oriented Environmental Factors Acceptance of
Participative Leader Effort
The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Model
Participative Leadership: Involving Employees in Decisions
What is Participation?
• Participative leadership – involving employees in making work-related decisions
• Participation is not a fixed or absolute property but a relative concept
• Participation can involve individual employees or the entire group of employees that reports to the
Potential Advantages of Participative Leadership
• Motivation – participation can increase the motivation of employees
• Quality – participation can enhance quality in at least two ways: first, an old saying argues that “two
heads are better than one”. “Two heads” (participation) can lead to higher-quality decisions than the
leader could make alone. Participation can also enhance quality because high levels of participation
often empower employees to take direct action to solve problems without checking every detail with
• Acceptance – even when participation does not promote motivation or increase the quality of
decisions, it can increase the employee’s acceptance of decisions.
Potential Problems of Participative Leadership
• Time and Energy – participation is not a state of mind, it involves specific behaviours on the part of
the leader, and these behaviours use time and energy.
• Loss of Power – some leaders feel that a participative style will reduce their power and influence
• Lack of Receptivity or Knowledge – employees might not be receptive to participation
Vroom and Jago’s Situational Model of Participation
• Victor Vroom and Arthur Jago have developed a model that attempts to specify in a practical manner