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Geog 1HB3 Exam Review

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Michael Mercier

Geography 1HB3 – Course Review Introduction 1) Introduction to Geography  What is where? Why there? Why Care?  Description, explanation, interpretation  Physical geography: Study of patterns and processes of the physical world  Physical environment  Ie. Landforms, climate, etc.  Human geography: Study of patterns and processes of the human world  Social environment  Ie. Economy, culture, etc. 2) Key Concepts I  Space: Amount of Earth’s surface covered  Areal extent  Absolute space: measurable by boundaries (ie. Map making)  Relative space: subjective/perceptual – not measurable (ie. Sketch maps)  Location: A specific position in space  Absolute location: mathematically calculated using latitude and longitude – precise and consistent  Relative location: perceived location – subject to change and perception  Nominal location: a location of significance – using a toponym (place name)  Place = location + significance  Sense of place – feelings or emotions  Sacred place – can be religious  Placelessness – homogeneity and standardization (ie. Walmart)  Distance  Absolute distance: physical and measurable  Relative distance: measured by time, money and psychological (ie. Walking during the day vs. night)  Distribution: geographic phenomena  Distance & organization  Density: ratio of how many to the size  Concentration/dispersion: how something is spread over an area - Clustered - Dispersed  Pattern: spatial arrangement of objects 3) Key Concepts II  Spatial interaction: the amount/level of movement or communication between two locations  First law – everything is related, but near things are more related than distant things  Distance decay: decline of interaction with increased distance  Distance vs. personal relationship  Friction of distance: distance delays interactions - Measures how easy it is to overcome distance  Accessibility & Connectivity  Critical for the nature and level of spatial interaction  Accessibility: the ease with which distance can be crossed  Connectivity: the tangible and intangible ways that places are connected  Recall friction of distance  Gravity Models: measures the quantity of movement or interaction between two places  Considers: relative size of each place and distance between them - Attraction between two places is proportional to their mass and inversely proportional to their respective distance - Larger places attract people, ideas and commodities more than smaller places and places closer together have greater attraction  Recall: Gravity Model homework task from lecture - Philadelphia and New York have the highest levels of interaction - Population and distance are the most influential factors - Change in the distance decay = change in interaction  Diffusion: the process by which a characteristic spreads across space over time  Depends on: distance, friction of distance and density  Relocation diffusion: the spread of an idea or characteristic through physical movement - As people move, they take their culture with them (ie. Religion)  Contagious diffusion: the rapid & widespread movement of a characteristic - Ie. Contagious diseases, gossip etc.  Hierarchical diffusion: the spread of ideas from authority or power to other people or places - The spread would be shaped like a pyramid starting from the top - Ie. Trends, new products etc. 4) Maps & Spatial Understanding  Maps: scale model of all or a portion of the Earth  Depict spatial relationships  Communicate spatial information - Ie. Boundaries, locations, etc.  Analyze spatial information  Are socially constructed - Can be distorted  Projection: mathematical technique to represent a 3D sphere in 2D  Distorted by: distance, direction and area  Cylindrical: surface is projected onto a cylinder that touches outside the globe around the equator - Accuracy is greatest at the equator and then declines  Conical: surface is projected onto a cone that barely touches - Accurate at mid-latitude  Azimuthal: projected onto a flat surface  Types of distortion: - Shape can be distorted so that areas appear elongated or shrunk - Distance may become increased or decreased - Relative size could make one area appear larger in comparison to another, but in reality could be smaller - Direction between places can become distorted  Latitude & Longitude: used to identify absolute locations  1 degree = 60 minutes  1 minute = 60 seconds  Latitude “Parallels” - Run parallel to the equator - Measure North or South - Ie. Equator = 0˚, North Pole = 90˚N, South Pole = 90˚S  Longitude “Meridians” - Arcs which meet at the North and South Poles - Measure East or West - Distance between each meridian varies (based on political decisions) - Ie. Prime Meridian = 0˚(Greenwich)  Time Zones  Complete a rotation every 24 hours  15˚ East or West = 1 hour forward or back  Determined by longitude - Time zones do not follow meridians exactly due to political decisions - Ie. It is easier for a small country to have one time zone  Map Types  Dot maps show patterns of spatial dispersion and concentration - Ie. population  Coropleth maps show graduated variation data  Isopleth maps connect locations of equal data - Ie. Average temperature  Cartograms create distortion to emphasize particular attributes  Map Scale: explains the relationship between the size of a feature on the map and the actual size  Determines the level of detail and the amount of area covered  Presented in 3 ways: - Ratio or fraction (ie. 1:10,000) - Written (ie. Using words) - Graphic scale (ie. A bar line marked to show distance) Global Economic Issues 5) Overview of Globalization & Development  Development: A process of improvement in the material conditions of life  Thought of as a continuum between two points  There are relative and absolute differences in quality of life and standard of living  World Systems Theory: an explanatory framework  The world is a system of “haves” and “havenots”  Core: “haves” - More developed countries - Ie. Canada, United States  Periphery: “havenots” - Less developed countries - Ie. Africa, Mexico  Globalization: increasing interconnectedness of people and societies around the world  Economically, socially, and culturally  Types of change: 1. Stretching of social, political and economic boundaries 2. More connected 3. More speed 4. Local events have greater global impact  Interconnectedness comes from:  Reducing the friction of distance (inter-related = connected to accessibility & connectivity) - Advances in communication (ie. Internet) & transportation (ie. Container shipping)  Breaking down barriers - Supranational organizations work to eliminate barriers to facilitate trade - Ie. European Union and NAFTA  Extending the scope of business - Trans-national corporations (TNCs) have a headquarters in one country and factories or subsidiaries in other countries (ie. Nike) - The size and influence of TNCs has become possible through: 1. Differential in wage 2. Differential environment regulations 3. Low cost for global transportation 4. Reduction of trade barriers  Global Village: incorporation into a single world society  Well connected, ease of communication, etc.  Goods and services create a global mall 6) Uneven Development  Development has many levels  There are many spatial variations in terms of well-being that vary at many spatial scales  Typically measured in economic terms - Must also consider social development – education, freedom, healthcare etc.  Less Developed World:  Characterized by: - Low GDP - High mortality & fertility - Low literacy levels - Low levels of industrialization  World Systems Theory: framework for understanding the dependency relationship  Core - Developed or industrial - Many former colonial powers  Semi-Peripheral - Developing - Many former colonies  Peripheral - Less developed – non-industrial - Depend on core countries  The UN’s 8 goals to reduce the gap in development: 1. End poverty and hunger 2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality and empower women 4. Reduce child mortality 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 7. Ensure environmental stability 8. Develop a global partnership for development 7) Development & Inequality: Measuring Economic & Social Development  Proxy measures of development: measures wealth or prosperity  Gross National Income (GNI) - The value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year - Accounts for money that leaves and enters the country  Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - The value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year - Does not account for money that leaves and enters the country  Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)  An adjustment made to the GNI to account for the differences among countries in the cost of goods  Lowers GNI in wealthy countries and increases in poor countries  Compresses the range of income - Developed countries have higher average incomes than developing countries - People in developed countries are more productive and buy more goods  Makes comparison between countries more effective as PPP accounts for the reality that economic prosperity is not evenly spread  Human Development Index (HDI): measures a country’s level of development  Development is based on three factors: - A decent standard of living - Access to knowledge - A long and healthy life  Measured between 0 and 1 (1 being the highest possible level of development)  Inequality adjusted: - IHDI - When the IHDI is lower than the HDI, the country has some inequality. The greater the difference, the greater the inequality 8) Consequences of Uneven Development & Issues of World Hunger  Global food crisis  Changes since the 1800s: - New crop strains - Mechanization - Fertilizers & pesticides - Conversion of new land - Intensification  At the global level there is no food shortage - The issue is the distribution of food and people - The food increase each year does not equal the population increase  Caloric requirements  Undernourishment: caloric intake does not meet physiological needs - Most likely in countries where people have to spend a high percentage of their income to obtain food - India has the most undernourished people, followed by China  Malnutrition: quantity and quality of food impairs health and development - Underweight OR obese  Choice of food: influenced by climate and level of development  Level of development – people in developed countries tend to consume more food and from different sources than those in developing countries  Physical conditions – climate influences what can be easily grown in developing countries, but developed countries often import food from other countries  Cultural preferences – some food preferences are not based on economic and physical factors Population 9) An Introduction to Global Population Distribution and Change  Population geography: the study of spatial expressions of population  Where do they live/work?  How do they live?  What resources do they use?  What are their conditions of health and well-being?  Global population growth  1995 population: approx. 5.7 billion  Current population: approx. 7.11 billion  2050 projection: approx. 9 billion  Growth rate – 1.2%/year  Doubling time – 54 years  Nature & consequences of growth 1. Differential population growth 2. Consequences  Provision of health-care & social services  Provision of food  Resource scarcity (water, oil, etc.)  Potential for conflict  Uneven distribution  Clustered vs. dispersed  Humans avoid clustering in harsh environments - Cold lands - Dry lands - Wet lands - High lands  Clusters: Europe, South Asia, East Asia & Southeast Asia  Dispersion: Sahara, Northern North America, Australia  Population density: the number of people occupying an area of land with regard to the amount of space  Arithmetic density: number of people per unit of land - Total number of people ÷ total land area - Most frequently used - Easy to compare countries  Physiological density: number of people per unit of arable land - The higher the physiological density, the greater the pressure placed on the land to make food - Provides insight to the relationship between the size of a population and the availability of resources  Limits to growth  Overpopulation: when the number of people exceeds the capacity of the environment  Carrying capacity: How many people can be supported by the environment 10) Population Growth Theory & Dynamics  Population equations  Population today = Old Population + (Births-Deaths) - P 1 P O (B-D) - Global population can only change based on births and deaths  Regionally, - P 1 P O (B-D) + (I-E) - I is immigration - E is emigration  Crude Birth Rate (CBR): Total births per 1000 people/year ( )  True Fertility – General Fertility Rate (GFR)  Must know: - Number of women in the population - Number of childbearing age (15-49) ( )  Total Fertility Rate (TFR): Average number of children a woman with birth in her lifetime  Globally: 2.8 children  Factors: - Age - Culture - Economic & social development - Environment  Crude Death Rate (CDR): Total deaths per 1000 people  Does not account for population age ( )  Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): Deaths of children between the ages 0-1 per 1000 people  Age adjusted  Range from less than 10 to 150+ - Highest rates are in developing countries - Lowest rates are in developed countries ( )  Life expectancy: average number of years that people are expected to live  Range from low 40s to 80+  Dependency Ratio: the number of people too young or too old to work – compared to the number of people in their productive years  The larger the percentage – the greater the financial burden on those working to support those who cannot  Declining birth rates  Some developing countries have lowered birth rates through improved education and health care - Women remain in school and are able to gain more economic control over their lives - Education helps women to understand their reproductive rights - Improved health care programs: prenatal care, counseling about STD’s and child immunization  In other developing countries, distribution of contraceptives has reduced birth rates  Malthus’ theory: population will increase quicker than resources  Malthus believed that food supply is linear while population is exponential  3 time periods: 1. Food > Population 2. Food = Population 3. Food < Population  Reality: - Conditions during the past half-century have not supported the theory - Food production has been growing faster than the NIR since 1950 - Malthus did not foresee critical cultural, economic and technological changes that would impact societies  Demographic Transition Theory: the process of change of a country’s population structure  Stage 1 - High birth and death rates - No country remains in this stage today  Stage 2 – High growth - High Birth rates and declining death rates - Ie. Cape Verde  Stage 3 – Moderate growth - declining birth and death rates - Most countries today - Ie. Chile  Stage 4 – Low growth - low birth and death rates - ie. Denmark  Most accurate for developed countries  Population pyramids: a bar graph that displays the percentage of a population – based on age and gender  Determined primarily by CBR  Expanding: Triangular - High CBR – large number of young children – base of pyramid is large  Diminishing: Upside-down triangle - Large number of older people – wide top of the pyramid  Stable: rectangular - Generally equal throughout all demographics 11) Population Migration  Population migration: the spatial movement of population, from one place to another  Net migration = immigrants – emigrants - Immigration: movement TO a location - Emigration: movement FROM a location  Occurs over a variety of spatial contexts - International – permanent movement from one country to another - Intraregional – permanent movement from one region of a country to another - Inter-urban (local)  Issues of interest  Cultural, political and economic characteristics  Number of migrants (flow)  Distance moved  Political boundaries crossed  Causes of migration  Time spent in new location  Migration: a form of population redistribution  Many core countries depend on immigration to sustain population and economic growth  Destination countries - High economic and social development - Immigrants outnumber emigrants - Ie. Canada  Source countries - Emigrants outnumber immigrants  Push-Pull Theory: attempts to explain the reasons why people migrate  Push factors – make a place undesirable - ie. Economic, environmental, cultural etc.  Pull factors – make a place desirable - Ie. Freedom, economic opportunity, etc.  Political push and pull factors: - Refugees: people who have been forced to migrate from their homes - cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group or political opinion - Wars force large-scale migration of ethnic groups  Economic push and pull factors: - Most migration is for economic reasons - People may move for jobs
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