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3FF3 Notes from midterm on

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Pamela Swett

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History 3FF3 Exam Notes: Nazi Germany Thursday Dec.8 th IWC 1 (5) 7:30pm (Mid-term on) Organized Resistance Within Germany - The difficulties of examining resistance - elimination of likely opposition in 1933 - opposition among elites: - resistance from within the government - Kreisau circle of social elites - july 20 1944 plot to assassinate Hitler - citizen opposition - the white rose - mixed marriages, the final roundup and the Rosenstrasse protest Feb-March 1943 - Vast majority support Nazi state: committed or passive - last stages some people question state but still belief in ideology - never general rebellion or mass underground movement - 1933 most likely opponents ( left, radical socialist or communist) were squashed rounded up - Gestapo prioritized prisonment of political opponents Ernsy Thaelmann Leader of KPD imprisoned in 1933 and shot in 1944 - less prominent activist arrested and released continuously - some tied to continue to distribute pamphlets but was difficult - by 1934 most likely leaders out of the way only people left to challenge are elites within the regime - individuals who come to resist Hitler were original supporters they were in the best position to challenge Hitler: above suspicion - most never lost faith however, a few did: mostly because of radical foreign policy Ludwig Beck and Carl Goerdeler resigned positions and loss faith; began looking for others with similar opinions in the government Hans Oster created a network and work from the inside to assassinate Hitler. Already thinking of ways to remove Hitler before the war began because they knew that Germany was not going to be able to accomplish their military goal liked their idea of unity but didnt think Germany could do it - other army officers who didnt like the way things were unfolding racial component; killing civilians eventually linked with another organized group Helmuth von Moltke (hated regime because felt it was against Christianity) = Kreisau Circle connected with military group and began to plot assassination. - July 20 1944: Stauffenberg brought bomb into meeting with Hitler and other officials; was detonated but Hitler was not harmed they didnt know it failed so tried to take over which meant they were easily caught. Most died and vengeance was taken on their families. - by the time plot unfolds it is clear that Germany is losing. Some argue that they couldnt be opponents of the regime because they supported it until close to the end when they knew they were going to lose. equally dangerous to see this group as saints because they were not democratsthey expected some sort of authoritarian government - should not see in their actions general disillusion amongst the population Citizen opposition - remained rare - university group: White Rose Hans and Sophie Scholl 1942 Munich were also original supporters but became disillusioned in 1941-1942 as tide began to turn more and more news about atrocities such as extermination camps - print leaflets distributed on campus: only produce 6 before they were caught they were all beheaded Documents: - think of how you will be remembered: are we to be forever the nation which is hated and rejected by all mankind? - religious argument: remember sin - guilt involved in doing something - hatred breads hatred; violence breads violence criminal regime has allowed historians to conclude that this language that they know or have an idea what is going on in terms of Jews on the eastern front - one explanation why there was no large scale revolt: Germans to scared to show resistance Challenged: in 1935 with implementation of the Nuremberg Laws intermarriage was illegal majority of mixed couples who were married prior to this stayed married - Oct 1941 Germany began exporting own Jews but intermarried Jews were not (considered privileged Jews) in away they were the worst kind of Jews; engaged in racial marriages gov worried what population would say if they carted off non-Jews didnt want to anger there Aryan relatives - also, euthanasia program was cut because of the publics concerns. - 1943 shift in policy: Total War Speech more radical to stop destruction last remaining Jews deported final round up of privileged Jews: started with those less likely to cause a fuss; made way to Berlin 10 000 Jews imprisoned Building on Rosenstrasse next few days ~6000 wives protested which resulted in Goebbels made decision to send the men home example of organized resistance; their success corrects over emphasis of blaming lack of resistance on terror The Christian Churches - Catholicism: - history of political opposition - crucifix affair and Euthanasia - Pope Pius XII - Protestantism: - Two Kingdoms doctrine and Gleichschaltung - German Christians and the Confessing Church - theological opposition - - for the most part consenting to dictatorship but also lay people who because of religious beliefs felt had to do something Catholicism - were a minority - own cultural and economic institution - as religious minority thought not good idea to prosecute another minority some empathy - as institution maintained anti-nazi: some Bishops forbade flock to join the party by 1931 all major bishops issue statements of incompatibility to Nazi and Catholicism; some were anti- marxist which meant the NSDAP appealed to them - after jan 1933 july 1933: Reich Concordat: guaranteeing rights of catholic church in social/education in exchange for breakdown of catholic political party - throughout mid-1930s rivalry between catholic groups and that of the party Catholic youth rally - after leading catholic: Erich Klausher spoke out was murdered at night of long knives in favour catholic independence - Pope Pius XII extent of personal anti-semitism irrelevant - claimed he has not stood up against because of fear for German Catholics - mid 1930s attempt to remove all crosses and replace with Hitlers photo regular people stood up against this nothing was done to these people; gov backed down - Bishop of Muensler: Clement Graf von Galen spoke up against Euthanasia covered widely through press catholic and international felt it was immoral - Hitler knew about public opposition: nothing done; scaled back program - oppression of Aryans was avoided when possible Protestants - no political tradition - German protestants accepted two kingdoms doctrine separation church and state traditionally obedience to secular authority - Evangelical church affected by Gleichshaltung (main part of protestants were apart of the state) main struggle was attempt to Nazify it: were Jew converts serving as clergymen to be dismissed - same pastors who may have supported Nazism however, now that state enacting Aryan paragraphs they are upset brought together by Bonhoeffer and Nieomoeller Sept 1933: emergency pastors league to discuss state interference in church discuss how Jew converts treated diff: declared not doing anything political many were still anti-Semitic (religious anti-Semitic) but had problem with treatment of converted Jews - Niemoeller was old fighter but started to move away from party because interference in church self- governance - reverse beliefs after 1935 call for full confrontation with holocaust and Nazism - 1 step in confessing church: middle class and well educated (were a minority) refused to fly swastika flag; prayers for non-aryans christens forced to give up jobs- German Christians: young pastors not serve ww1; lower middle classes and those serving on border desired church militant group; believed Hitler completing what Luther had started. Wanted converted Jews kicked out but also those who didnt pledge alliance to regime; found theological evidence to back up racial hierarchy reject old testimate - among protestants two poles some in the middle as well - regime hope German Christians would take off never able to encompass all protestants eventually Hitler losses confidence in Muller by 1935 his power dwindled and ends up committing suicide - confessing church remains minority never becomes sight of opposition The Nazi War on Cancer - good science at work for anti-democratic ideals - a racist understanding of disease - Arthur hintze and the challenge of environment - occupational health - the nazi diet - vegetables, fruits, less meat, fat and processed foods - beer is not liquid bread, anti-alochol campaign - the campaign against tobacco - duty to be healthy - ethnocrats doing in terms of positive possibilities to protect the race - what is less know that nazi ideology stimulated research into things that harm the body critical racial political ideologies effect on scientific research - good science inspired by ideals of regime - biological determinism pillars of ideology - idea that disease was genetic - all manner of talent linked to genetics divorce, crimes, biological disease - Jews predisposed to all sorts of diseases and behaviours belief among medical people could be passed on homosexuality, sexual deficiency, bad eyes, flat feet, some cancers etc - Jews blamed for introducing products that cause disease such as tobacco - Dr. Leonardo Conto minister of Health: sterilization procedures to get rid of certain diseases - geographic/cultural difference played in racial ide
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