Health and Aging 1BB3 Exam Review Notes
adult daycare programs programs that provide noninstitutional support for people who are
otherwise unable to remain in the community.
care gap the difference between what care could or should be and what usual care
is. The care gap leads to missed clinical benefits and higher costs for
Centres locaux de services Quebec's local centres for community services combine the work of
communautaires (CLSCs) professionals and volunteers to deliver home care services and direct
health needs away from hospitals toward community care.
Community Care Access Centres Ontario's system of volunteerrun community care centres that provide a
(CCACs) single point of entry into the health care system and services such as the
Victorian Order of Nurses.
continuum of care the array of services that range from institutional care to little or no
geriatric day hospital a hospital program that offers a full range of hospital services to older
people who live in the community, and that assesses individuals' needs
before setting up a health care plan.
health care the support needed for people to maintain optimum health. The health care
needs of Canada's older population range from health promotion to health
maintenance, to longterm chronic care.
health field the realm of health services, including the health care system, traditional
medical services, improvements in human biology, improvements in
lifestyle, and improvements in environment, as envisioned by former
federal Minister of Health Marc Lalonde.
health promotion model a health care model that focuses on selfcare and preventing disease
through lifestyle change, increased knowledge about healthy behaviour,
and environmental improvement.
home care a range of social and medical services designed to help people live
independently in the community.
longterm care social and medical services, including formal services, home or
institutional care, and family care, for people who have functional
medical model a health care model that favours surgery, drug therapy, and rehabilitation
through physical therapies with a focus on the treatment of diseases and
injuries, usually in the physician's office, a hospital, or other health care
normalization principle the idea that institutions can and should make life in the institution as
much like life outside as possible.
Romanow Report the 2002 Canadian federal government report of the Commission on the
Future of Health Care in Canada, led by Roy Romanow, which underscores
Canada's commitment to its health care system and makes several
proposals for improving the delivery of health care to seniors
singlepointofentry model a single agency that assesses clients' needs, coordinates service delivery 2
from multiple sources, and monitor clients' progress.
social model a health care model that includes personal and family counselling, home
care, and adult daycare programs as part of the health care system, and
that tries to keep older people in their own homes.
clawback required repayment of Old Age Security benefits from wealthier seniors to
credit splitting a plan by which each spouse of a divorcing couple gets an equal share of
pension credits accumulated during their time together.
defined benefit pension plan a defined benefit plan states how much an employee can expect to earn in
retirement based on a formula that takes into account years of service and
highest salary. The company guarantees the benefit based on this
defined contribution pension plan a defined contribution plan states how much a person will pay in (often
matched to some degree by the company). This plan defines the
contribution but does not guarantee the outcome. The outcome in
retirement will depend on how well the employee's investments do over
depth of poverty the distance between a person's income and the poverty line.
great pension debate the debate in the 1980s over how to fund public pensions for older
Canadians in the future.
income maintenance programs income supplement programs such as the Canada and Quebec Pension
Plans that help people maintain their preretirement income and lifestyle.
income security programs income supplement programs such as the Old Age Security and the
Guaranteed Income Supplement that help people meet their basic needs
indexation a method of increasing pensions linked to increases in the cost of living.
portable a pension that moves with workers when they change jobs.
registered retirement savings plans a government plan that allows people to save money for their future
(RRSPs) pension without paying income tax on the money protected within the
RRSP. The pension is taxed when it is withdrawn in retirement. The taxes
are deferred to a time when the person has a lower income and is in a
lower tax rate
savings plan a payment plan to which each person contributes a percentage of his or
her salary each month. In the case of the CPP/QPP, the payments are
credited to individual workers; when they retire, their pension will depend
on how much they paid into the plan.
taxfree savings accounts (TFSAs) a program that allows Canadians age 18 or over to put up to $5000 a year
into a savings account. These dollars will be allowed to grow tax free and
will not be taxed when taken out.
transfer plan (also called a payasyougo plan) money paid into the plan goes to pay
the pensions of retired plan members today. The CPP/QPP also works like
a transfer plan.
universality the idea that everyone in Canada has a right to a public pension
regardless of his or her income. 3
vesting workers with a fully vested pension have credit for their total pension
contributions (their own and their employer's contributions) even if they
move from one employer to another.
bridge job a job that a worker takes on the path to retirement (often in work outside
the individual's former career).
citizen's wage a government pension tied to age.
core sector the sector of the economy that includes the most stable, highpaying jobs
and usually provides workplace pensions.
flexible retirement an option that allows workers to slowly cut back the number of hours they
work each week.
free career a second career in a field that allows a person to explore previously
dormant or undeveloped interests.
periphery sector the sector of the economy that offers less stable, lowpaying jobs with few,
if any, fringe benefits, and rarely includes workplace pensions.
retirement principle the idea that a person leaves work at a fixed age, regardless of mental or
retirement wage a pension paid by the state to support all older people.
second career work that allows people to develop skills they did not use in their
taxback taxes paid on earnings by recipients of the Guaranteed Income
Supplement and provincial supplements, which can amount to a 100
percent reduction in supplement payments for the poorest older people
third age the period of life after the period of work and child rearing in the middle
years but before frailty and dependence set in (the fourth age). A period of
life created by longer life expectancy and a longer period of good health in
55 Alive Mature Driving Program a program that helps seniors improve their driving skills and teaches them
how aging affects driving.
aging in place the situation of older people living into late old age in the same place they
lived in their middle years.
assisted living housing that provides personal care services and other supports to frail
seniors to help them stay living independently in the community.
collective dwellings dwellings that include health care facilities and longterm care institutions.
core housing need a person has core housing need if the housing is too small or in poor
repair, or if the household spends more than 30 percent of its total income
on housing (CMHC 2005a).
ecological model the LawtonNahemow model of interaction between the individual and the
environment that holds that a person's ability and the demands of the
environment influence that person's life satisfaction and ability to function. 4
enriched housing housing that provides services such as meals and cleaning services to
help people live on their own.
environmental press the demands of the environment on a person.
FlexHousing a housing concept that designers and builders use to make future
changes in housing easy and affordable in order to meet the changing
needs of people as they age.
garden suite a separate building on an adult child's property or part of their house made
into a selfcontained unit for an elderly relative. Also known as a granny flat.
granny flat part of a house made into a selfcontained unit for an elderly relative, or a
small, portable cottage or dwelling erected in the garden of an adult child's
house. Also known as a garden suite.
intimacy at a distance the desire of many older people to live near, but not with, their children.
mingle apartment a dwelling that contains two 2bedroom suites with a common entrance,
kitchen, and combined living and dining area.
mobility club a volunteer group of older people who provide rides to other seniors.
Residential Rehabilitation Assistancea federal government program offering loans to lowincome people to help
Program (RRAP) them improve rundown housing.
Reverse Annuity Mortgage (RAM) a type of reverse mortgage whereby a person buys a life annuity and gets
an income while living in the home and the mortgage company takes over
the house when the person dies.
shelter allowances government allowances that subsidize the person, not the housing project,
and allow older people to choose their own apartment.
supportive housing housing for people who need minimal to moderate care and use services
such as homemaking, personal care, and social support programs.
transportation brokerage a program that matches passengers with transportation services that
meet their needs.
universal design housing adaptations that serve people of all ages. Designers use lever
door handles, low threshold tubs, and temperature limits on hot water
tanks to improve living for older people, as well as children and those with
active leisure lifestyle a type of lifestyle that directly benefits health and helps to buffer the
influence of life events and illness by regular participation in physical
Canadian Executive Service a federal government program that recruits volunteers, many of whom are
Organization (CESO) retired executives, to serve as advisers and mentors in underdeveloped
countries or with Aboriginal groups in Canada.
contractors people who have stopped at least one outdoor activity in the past year and
have not learned any new activity since age 65, in keeping with the
continuity theory of aging.
Elderhostel a notforprofit company that promotes lifelong learning by organizing
educational and cultural tours aimed at people in their 50s and older
(originally based on a combination of university life and the European
concept of hostelling).
expanders people who have not stopped any activities in the past year and have 5
added at least one new outdoor activity since age 65, in keeping with the
lifespan development theory of aging.
hypokinetic disease the idea that the lack of activity can lead to mental and physical problems,
while increases in activity can prevent or reverse these problems.
Institutes for Learning in Retirement programs that offer older people a variety of educational formats from
(ILRs) or Lifelong Learning Institutes lectures to seminars, to travel courses, with topics usually decided upon
(LLIs) by the group.
leisure competence the ability to make use of leisure time for life satisfaction.
structural lag a mismatch between changes in the aging process (e.g., better health for
older people, more active lifestyles) and the roles and places in the social
structure that can meet the needs of this new older person.
weak social ties these differ from the intimacy of family and friendship ties. Weak social ties
link people from diverse backgrounds and expose a person to new views
animalassisted therapy therapy that involves introducing pets, such as dogs, cats, rabbits, or birds,
into nursing homes or other residential care settings with the objective of
improving the health, behaviour, and wellbeing of the residents.
boomerang children adult children who return to their parent's home after having moved out at
an earlier point in time.
caregiver burden problems and stress due to caregiving.
caregiver's wage or allowance financial payment to family caregivers to assist them in their caregiving
confidant someone in whom one confides.
convoy model of support a model that describes social support as a network of close family and
friends who travel together throughout life, exchanging social support and
developmental stake or generational the idea that, compared with their children, older people have a greater
stake investment in the relationship with their children.
eldercare programs workplace programs that can help family caregivers cope with care for an
older family member.
family counselling counselling with a social worker or psychotherapist that includes parents,
children, and siblings.
fictive kin the close relationships that an older person develops with nonrelatives
such as friends, neighbours, and home care workers.
filial piety a culture value or belief, highly valued in Asian cultures, that younger
generations should take care of older family members.
formal support paid support from professional caregivers such as doctors, nurses, social
workers, and home care workers.
functional specificity of relationships a model of social support that contends a family or friendship tie may
model provide one type of support or a broad range of support, depending on the
particular relationship between the caregiver and the care receiver.
GRAND (Grandparents Requesting a group that helps grandparents who cannot get access to their 6
Access and Dignity) grandchildren.
hierarchical compensatory model a model of social support that contends people choose their supports first
from their inner family circle and then move outward to get support from
lessintimate people as they need more help.
informal caregivers unpaid care providers with a tie of kinship or affection toward the care
informal support unpaid support from family members, friends, neighbours, and others in
kin keeper the person in a family who keeps family members in touch with one
another. Women generally occupy this role.
LAT (living apart together) couples couples that have a committed relationship but maintain separate
longdistance caregivers caregivers who live at a significant distance from the care recipient.
primary potential support groups family and close friends who give help to the older person and who can
expect help from the older person.
quasiwidowhood experiencing feelings of grief, depression, and loss after a spouse is
placed in a nursing home.
respite services services ranging from friendly visitors who stay with the care receiver for a
few hours, to fullday adult day care, to longer institutional respite to give
caregivers time off.
sandwich generation people in midlife who have at least one living parent and at least one child
living in the household.
second language of sex the "language of sex" that develops in a longterm intimate relationship
and focuses on responsiveness, caring, and affection.
semiformal structures forms of organized support, such as car pools, groups of people in the
same building who shop together, friendly visitors, or "daily hello" phone
callers, that fall between the informal and formal support structures.
skipgeneration households grandparents living with grandchildren without the presence of the middle
social support the help and assistance people give to one another.
support groups groups that give caregivers information about how to cope with caregiving
demands and provide emotional support.
task specificity model a model of social support that contends different groups (of family, friends,
neighbours) have different abilities and offer different types of support,
each playing a specific role.
active euthanasia intervening actively to end a person's life.
advance directive a precise statement of the desired treatment and care, including what
medical actions are to be taken under what conditions and a declaration
of who has the right to decide.
assisted suicide suicide made possible with the help of someone, who may or may not
participate directly in the event; in the case of physicianassisted suicide, a
doctor provides the person with the means or advice on how to commit
durable power of attorney the power that gives someone, usually a lawyer, child, friend, or other
family member, the right to make decisions on behalf of the ill person.
ego integrity the acceptance of the notion that one's life cycle is something complete
ego transcendence a late stage of psychosocial development, in which people feel a deep
concern for others and for the culture they will leave when they die.
euthanasia ending the life of a person suffering a terminal illness or incurable
health care directive instructions with specific information for family members and doctors
about the amount of treatment the person prefers under different
hospice health care services that meet the special needs of dying patients.
living will a legal document that specifies the limits of health care treatment desired
in case of a terminal illness.
palliative care care directed toward improving the quality of life for the dying, including
symptom control and spiritual support as well as bereavement support
passive euthanasia withholding or ceasing treatment of someone who is ill or injured and not
expected to recover.
physicianassisted suicide (PAS) when a physician provides a patient with advice about how to commit
suicide or with the technical means (e.g., lethal medications) to commit
HLTH AGE 1BB3 Practice Test Questions.
1. Based on the course text information on historical change, what aspect of the
agricultural society assured older people support from the young?
a. a food surplus
b. property ownership
c. respect for their age
d. a monopoly on agricultural information
2. According to Novak and Campbell, Gerontology has two major goals:
a. to increase our knowledge about old age and to improve the
quality of life in old age
b. to study all the problems with becoming old and to create solutions for these
c. to discover ways that we can all stay young and to improve the quality of life
for those who were not able to stay young
d. a and c 8
e. none of the above
3. The assumption that population dynamics direct the future of social interactions and
social institutions, is known as
1. Demographic Determinism
2. Social dependency
4. Effective dependency
5. Dependency ratio
4. Theories that focus on social structures, social processes and problems, and
a. microlevel theories
b. sociopolitical interactive theories
c. global perspectives
d. macrolevel theories
e. interpretive theories
5. Cohort effects, as a change due to old age, are related to
1. the observation that no two people or age groups are exactly alike
2. an effect on a person’s life related to the time of the person’s death
3. shared backgrounds and experiences of people born around the same time
4. researchers confusing age differences with age changes
5. a and b
6. The view that society consists of conflicts between dominant and subordinate social
group belongs to which theory or perspective?
a. the normative perspective
1. the engagement theory
2. the modernization theory
d. the conflict perspective
e. the political stratification perspective
7. The projected increase in the proportion of older people in the developed
nations, such as Canada, will be due mostly to:
a. decreased birth rates
b. increased global warming 9
c. increased longevity
d. immigration from less developed countries
e. a and c
8. Which one of the following is FALSE?
a. stereotypes about old age can decrease with increased education on aging
b. it is difficult to separate period effects from effects due to aging in gerontological
c. Social Gerontology looks at aging from the individual’s and from the society’s point
d. b and c
e. none of the above
9. Which theory places the study of aging in context of larger political, historical, economic
and social forces?
a. structural functionalist
b. social constructionist
c. symbolic Interaction
e. political economy
10. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
a. Functional disability refers to a limitation on a person’s ability to perform normal
daily activities due to illness or injury.
b. Individuals can not delay the onset of chronic illnesses as these illnesses are
inevitable in old age
c. Scientific research shows that a person’s life expectancy can be extended beyond
the life span of the species
d. Majority of older people in Canada consider their health as good, very good or
e. a and d
Chapter 8: Health Care
1. Health care needs for the elderly range from maintenance programs for the well elderly to
longterm institutional care for those who have severe health problems
2. 3 models of health care exist Canada today: the medical, social model, health promotion
model. The medical model that dominates the health care system today is concerned with the 10
treatment of illness
3. The Canadian health care system consists of 5 basic principles: universal coverage, access
to services, portability, comprehensive services and administration by nonprofit public agency.
The provincial and federal governments share the cost of this system
4. Canada has one of the most comprehensive health care systems in the world but it spend a
lot more of its gross national product on health care than other countries do
5. Research shows that the commitment to the medical model may account for higher than
necessary health care cost. Complex medical procedures, increased salaries for medical
personnel, and high institutional costs all lead to increasing healthcare costs
6. Canada has one of the highest rates of institutionalization in the works, Institutions serve the
needs of many older people, and programs exist that can improve the quality of life of
institutionalized patients. But sometimes people enter institutions because they cannot get the
support they need to stay in the community.
7. The Romanow Report on the Canadian health care system proposes reform to the system.
The report repeated Canada’s commitment to its universal medical care system. It also rejected
the use of user fees. Some reforms, such as support for palliative care and longterm care, will
improve care for older people. Other reform proposals, such as the limitation of home care to
postacute, mental health, and palliative care patients, need expansion to include seniors needs.
8. The social model of health care supports a continuum of services from institutional care to
home care. It calls for health care programs to help older people stay in their homes. These
programs include geriatric day hospitals, adult daycare programs, and home care.
9. Home care programs tailor services to fit the needs of the older person. They provide families
with help to relieve caregiver burden. These programs may or may not save money, but they do
allow people to stay in their homes as long as they can.
10. The health promotion model of health care supports healthy lifestyles and a better
environment. It takes a broad view of health care that recognizes a need for changes in the
workplace and improvements in socioeconomic status.
11. The government will have no deal with three service issues in order to meet the needs of an
aging population: availability of services, accessibility of services, and coordination of services.
12. The health care system will change in the future, and evolve to meet the needs of older
people. This will include more communitybased care and more health promotion programs. The
system has already begun to make some of these changes.
Chapter 9: Finances and Economics
1. Canada’s pension system has a sound structure, but the current system needs improvement.
Some people very old women, people from lowerincome brackets, people with low levels of
education, widows and homemakers all run a higher than average risk of poverty in old age.
2. Canada has a threetiered system: the OAS, GIS, and ALW make up tier one, THE CPP and
QPP make up tier two and private pensions and savings make up tier three.
3. The Canadian retirement system has two goals:1 to keep all older people out of poverty; and
3 to replace preretirement income. At present, it meets neither goal for many Canadians.
4. Poorer Canadians, the people who need private savings the most in retirement, have the least
chance of having any. Private pension plans cover fewer than half of Canadian workers. The
CPP at best replaces only 25 percent of a persons income up to the average industrial wage, 11
and the OAS/GIS/ALW leave the poorest older people in poverty.
5. Compared with men, women face a higher risk of poverty in old age, because unequal
coverage by pension plans, lowerpaying jobs, and different works patters due to child rearing
often leave women with lower pensions.
6. Widows run a high risk of poverty in old age. The CPP pays a relatively small survivor
pension, and private pension plans offer only about a 60 percent pension to survivors.
7. The federal government has recently made changes to the system. Reforms include higher
GIS/ ALW payments, a more secure CPP pension system, rules that encourage RRSP and
TSFA contributions, and rules that strengthen private pension plans.
8. In 1998, the Canadian government created the CP Investment Board to manage CPP surplus
revenues. In 1999, for example, the Board invested nearly $2 billion in the financial markets.
Although this entails some risk, good management of these funds has added to the CPP’s ability
to meet future demands.
9. Many employers have moved from offering defined benefit pension plans to offering defined
contribution pension plans. A defined benefit plan makes the employer responsible for a specific
pension for each retiree; a defined contribution plan states how much a worker will pay into the
program, but does not guarantee a specific income in retirement. This trend has shifted pension
risk from the employer to the worker.
10. Proposed reforms to the CPP and to private plans try to ensure that more Canadians,
including homemakers, get pension coverage. Better public and private pensions for these
people may reduce the costs of federal government transfers in the future. This will save the
government money and give more people a better income in retirement.
11. The government will probably reduce its role in providing pensions to middleincome workers
in the future. Individuals, families, and the private sector will have to provide income for people
over the poverty line.
12. Canadians will pay for pension reforms as long as people support the notion that everyone
young and old gains from a strong pension system.
Chapter 10: Retirement and Work
1. Most people want to retire, and they retire as early as they has a good pension
2. Some people want to continue working, and they have challenged compulsory retirement rules
in court. The supreme court of Canada had supported compulsory retirement, except in
provinces that prohibit it. But changed in public sentiment and the future need for older workers
point to the end of mandatory retirement in Canada in the future
3. Arguments against mandatory retirement suggest that most workers want to work past 65, but
studies show that if their health is poor or a good income awaits them, most people will leave
work before age 65. People now accept retirement as a reward they have earned for the years of
work and they want to collect that reward as soon as they can
4. Canadians now have more choice about when they retire and what pattern of retirement they
will follow. Some people take full retirement at age 65, others work part time and still others start
second careers and encore careers. Some older workers take the option of flexible retirement.
They may retire for a while, and then return to workand they may do this more than once. Social
conditions (such as economy, the availability of jobs, or a person’s occupation) affect a persons 12
5. A good income gives retirees the most option and the best chance to plan for and enjoy
retirement. Professionals and people with good private pensions or saving have the most
options. People need to plan for a good retirement, and this should goo beyond financial planning
to include a “life portfolio.”
6. The larger number of women in the labour force will lead to new theories of retirement and new
research approaches. Women have different work careers than men and often face
socialstructural barriers (such as low pay and broken work records) that lead to low incomes
and few retirement options.
7. Canadian society may need to find ways to keep older workers on the job in order to avoid a
labour shortage. Changes to government pension plans will encourage people to stay at work
longer and more flexible work opportunities may attract older workers
8. Retirement research in the past has focused on how individuals cope with retirement. A
broader view of retirement links individual behaviour to social and economic back ground, and
socioeconomic status on retirement
Chapter 11: Housing and Transportation
1. Research on housing and transportation shows that older people enjoy old age most when
they feel in control of their environment. People can maintain this control by changing that
environment (for example, moving to an apartment from a singlefamily home or modifying their
existing home so they can remain there.)
2. A good match between a person’s ability and environment demand leads to high life
satisfaction. An ideal housing system offers older people a range of housing choices because
peoples needs differ. People should be able to move from one type of housing to another from a
house to an apartment, or from an apartment to enriched housing as their needs change, or
they should be able to get support to help them stay where they are.
3. Most older people want to stay in the kind of housing they now occupy and “age in place.”
Government policies and programs such as rent subsidies, tax rebates, and repair loans help
older people stay they are.
4. Canada offers older people a wide range of housing potions. These include singlefamily
homes, apartment and condominiums, congregate housing, retirement communities, and
longterm care homes. New types of housing –like garden suites and multigenerational housing
will increase seniors housing options in the future.
5. More older people than ever before, especially women, live alone. Fewer older people live with
family members. For some older people, living alone reflects their financial ability to live
independently. But for others living alone means trouble affording their housing, and social
isolation. People who live alone may need more formal supports to live on their own as they age.
This could put more pressure on formal services in the future.
6. Both urban and rural older people value three types of amenities: necessities, social
interaction, and life enrichment. Rural older people ranked social interaction as very important.
Compared with urban older people, rural older people have the poorest facilities and fewest
7. Homeless older people often live on the street and use shelters for overnight rest and meals. 13
Homelessness leads to a poor diet, untreated health problems, premature aging, and shorter life
8. Good transportation links older people to their communities to services, recreation, and
friends. But both urban and rural transportation system nee improvement. Most older people in
cities could use transportation that exists if it were modified to suit their needs. Poor lighting in
subways, snow along bus routes, and rigid schedules make urban transportation systems
unsuitable for many older people.
9. Rural seniors often have no available transportation, but new programs in rural settings
include bus services shared by a number of small towns, volunteer bus services, and people
who pool their resources to help one another get around. Older people in rural settings have
begun to set up transportation services they need.
10. Older people, like younger people, prefer auto travel to other forms of transportation. Older
men are more likely than older women to have a drivers licence and a care. Older people resist
giving up their drivers licence. The link the loss of divers licence to loss of independence.
11. Good housing and transportation lead to increased life satisfaction for older people. An
environment that fits the persona abilities helps keep the person safe, satisfied, active , and in
with their community.
Chapter 12: Leisure, Recreation, and Service
1. Older people spend a great deal of their time on passive mediarelated activities such as
reading the newspaper and watching television. Older people often spend their time alone, but
they also enjoy spending time with others.
2. Income, lifestyle, gender, and health influence what people do and how active they remain in
old age. Older people in good health have shown one of the highest rates of increase in sports
and exercise activities in the past few years.
3. Physical functions do decline with age, but fitness training can reverse some physical decline.
Fitness training can also lead to a better selfimage, more social contacts, and increased
4. Older people will join and stay in fitness programs if they have control over program content
and feel relaxed and unthreatened by competition. An increasing number of older now value
fitness and exercise.
5. An active leisure lifestyle provides physical, psychological, and social benefits in later life. This
leads to better functioning and greater life satisfaction.
6. Senior centers across the country offer education, counselling, and recreation for older
people. They form the closest thing to a network of recreational program, in Canada. Centre
activities will need to change in the future to meet the needs younger, more active seniors.
7. People with many years of schooling will keep n learning as they age. Universities often
sponsor special programs for seniors. Programs such as Elderhostel and Creative Retirement
Manitoba offer alternatives to traditional schooling and are designed to fit older peoples interests
and learning styles.
8. Computer technology has attracted the interest of many older people. It has begun to change
the way in which older people have access to new ideas, information, and people.
9. Many older people volunteer to help others, and studies show that volunteers report in life 14
satisfaction. More older people might offer might offer their skills and services to the community
if they had the opportunity.
Chapter 13: Family Life and Social Support
1. The myth persists that middleaged children abandon their elderly parents, but studies show
again and again that children maintain contact with their parents, provide them with help, and get
help and support from then when they need it.
2. A good marriage provides support for both partners as they age. Married older people use less
formal care, rely less on children and friends for support, and have a lover institutionalization rate
than unmarried older people. Older women run a higher risk than older men of losing this support
due to widowhood.
3. Never married older adults play vital and supportive roles in the lives of siblings, older parents,
and others. They also form friendships and other social relationships to provide themselves with
supporters, confidants, and companions.
4. Older divorced men are more likely than older divorced women to remarry. Being divorced in
later life often means economic insecurity, particularly for women, and loss of social contact with
children for men. There has been a significant increase in the number of divorced older people.
5. Older adults now and in the future will have greater choice in the type of intimate relationships
they wish to form. These will includ