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Labour Studies
David Goutor

Hudson’s Bay Route  When trading first started  Way to trade furs  Whites and aboriginals had mutual dependency on each other  Aboriginals: trapping  Whites: traded goods  White people set up and waited for aboriginals  Managed fort and waited  Aboriginals did not exchange with people they did not know at all  Said they have to have a cultural event to get to know them  Social gatherings, feasts, festivals, then exchange of goods Voyageurs  Voyageurs: paddled from Montreal, up the St. Lawrence, through great lakes to Thunder Bay to transport goods out to aboriginals then bring furs back  Voyageur experience: o Injury o Fear of getting lost o Wilderness – could get sick or injured or had to worry about other sick/injured people o Freedom (environment) o “Liminality”: being on the edge of two different societies (made strong connections with aboriginal communities, married aboriginal women but also felt isolated because did not feel like fit into French-Canadian culture or aboriginal culture) “Hewers of Wood”  Timber was #1 staple in early 19 century  “Hewers of Wood” winter work: person stuck doing the winter wood work  Easier to move trees in winter because ground freezes  Way too much mud and resistance in the summer  Timbering Culture: o Groups of men going deep into woods o Doing dangerous work – lots of injury  Log running: run rafts of large logs down the river in the spring when freezing stopped  Timber-based towns were rough places  Timber trade provided jobs for farmers in the winter  Could not farm in the winter Myth of the Independent Farmer  Especially drawn to the new world and ID of new world  Able to get own piece of land  Able to become independent  Can work hard and make your own way  Makes new world different  Nobody is your boss  Respectability o People in community that made enough for family to get by were seen as somebody to look up to o Reward for hard work o Respectable status meant you had what it took to stand on your own feet and produce for yourself and your family o Could participate in community discussions and opinions held a lot of weight o Gender element: proved that men were men o Goal was not to become rich or show of o Goal was to be free Bonding out domestics: girls sent out to do domestic work for another family Paternalism  Master craftsman was a role model and father figure  His responsibility to teach trade to journeyman and apprentice  Status was based on how well made products AND how well taught trade  Connected with apprentices (would live with family of master craftsman)  Taught young boys how to behave  Highly respected people in the community  Pillars of the community  Had a large public role in the church/community  Expected to fill role responsibly  Were seen as people who have “made it”  Were not respected if charged maximum price  Had to charge price that let them be successful but also helped community be self-sustaining The Craft Shop  Small scale production  Shops called “ten footers”  Most shops were attached to the master craftsman’s home  Family roles in business o Wife handled taking care of accounts, sales, etc. o Son would be apprentices and would take shop after father died  Personal connections to business o Did not just do business with strangers o Knew people from community, church, events, etc. o Operated on first name basis o Would not just talk about sale but about personal life as well Small Shop to Factory  Master craftsman’s shops have competition from imports  Imports are cheaper than their goods  (But can also ship stuff out now)  Transportation innovations make it easier/cheaper to ship imported goods  Imported goods used to be way more expensive than locally made  Now much more imported goods are coming in  Steps that changed their shops to factories: 1. Speed up in production and needed more supplies 2. Role of Merchants becomes greater because they are the ones that have best access to supply networks and transportation networks 3. Expansion of shops (bring in more people to do work, cleaning, grunt work, etc. – work becomes much more impersonal) 4. Relocation (shops are too small for the expanding business - moved to merchants store) 5. Factory  The status of the Master craftsman disappears  Most of them are demoted to journeymen  Sometimes Master craftsman can become on the business side if they make a deal with the merchant to share the business  Journeymen no longer had the fate of becoming a Master craftsman one day  Mentoring role to the apprentices disappears as well Prevailing Ideology: Liberalism  Ideology brought on by industrial revolution  Emergence of business class  Liberalism does not always mean liberal party  A lot of people called liberals are not people who identify themselves as liberals (identified themselves with “conservative”)  Liberals believe in protecting liberty and allowing for liberty to work  Allowing a system that promotes liberty is the best way to go  Governments should intervene as little as possible and let the free market play out  Liberals do not want unions to influence governments  Classical Liberalism: George Brown o Prominent in the liberal party in Canada o Committed to pure free-market liberalism, free trade, free flow of goods John A. Macdonald  Conservative party leader  Called party liberal-conservative party for a while  Made acceptations to things that the government could do to limit the free- market but that would help the economy grow  National Policy: 1. Public Works 2. Immigration (open immigration, subsidizing of immigration), 3. Tariff (Protective Tariff): tariffs set high enough to protect local industries, other countries can make goods cheaper and more efficiently than Canada, want more commission in Canada so make goods from other countries more expensive  Trade Union Act o John A. Macdonald initiates o Makes unions legal (union leaders were let out of prison) o Unions love this 9-Hour Movement  First time labour movement was focused on one issue in different places  Wanted to limit hours of work in a day to nine hours a day (six days a week)  Significant because was the first time labour unions participated in public debates  Was about changing the view of workers because employers were very afraid of large groups of people who did not have anything to do  Keeping workers busy was a way to keep them out of trouble  9 hour movement challenged this and said more free time was needed  Challenged the idea that you have to work people all the time to control them  If did not have to work all the time could participate in church, politics, as fathers (big one)  Turning Victorianism: a lot of the cause of the problems right now is that employers never give them time away Toronto Printers’ Strike  Turns entire focus of 9 Hour Movement  Toronto Printers make 9 hours part of their strike  Were a very strong, well-organized union  All attention from 9 Hour Movement was put on Toronto Printers’ Strike  Brown Again  April 15 Rally: Printers hold a big rally in support of their strike (turnout of 10,000), really displayed labour’s strength  Had a major long-term effect in that the Labour Day Parade was created (people were impressed with this one turnout and wanted to do it again)  Repression: George Brown goes to police and tells them to arrest the leaders of the Labour Unions (they do)  Now the big issue is whether or not unions should be legal  Criminal Law Amendment Act o Puts limits on what unions can do o Business was happy with this o Brown was beside himself (upset)  The 9 Hour Movement was not achieved Master and Servant Act  The main law governing the relationship between one worker and one employer  There was a Master and a Servant (was the workers job to serve the master)  What the master said goes most of the time  The master decides when you get paid, when you can quit, how to quit, when you work and when you go home  Said that it is unfair for servant to quit (criminalized quitting)  Master could go to police and have servant arrested if they walked away in the middle of a contract  When labour unions get going they wanted to get rid of this  Were successful (kind of)  Decriminalized quitting  Quitting is still illegal but do not go to jail  Can still get fined by the government Terence Powderly  Becomes president of KOL in 1879  Changed organization  Was Catholic so did not want to be secret anymore  Under his leadership they become very open to almost all workers of different backgrounds  Under his leadership things start to grow in US and Canada  By 1884 people were starting to pay attention to Knights of Labour  Great Southwestern Railway Strike: Knights of Labour win and get a better deal for their workers (1885)  Win in 1885 leads to many more members  Membership could have doubled but had to turn people away because couldn’t keep track of all people wanting to sign up  Interest does not last that long  Not that good at tracking members  In total there were about 3 millions people who joined Knights of Labour at some time Breadwinner’s Wage  Protection of women meant protecting them from having to work  Breadwinners wage: wage efficient enough to provide for the whole family without anyone else having to work  Knights said men should be able to make a Breadwinner’s wage to keep women and girls from having to work  Said that industrial workplaces are rough, nasty places that women are too delicate to work in Haymarket Incident  Incident in Chicago in 1886  Chicago was huge center of industrialism and growth  Also site of a lot of strikes  May 4 :h o Big rally in support of strike in Haymarket Square o Knights involved o Lots of other workers there o Police surrounded protest o Police charge into crowd and bomb them o Police start firing into crowd o Protestors and police are killed  Haymarket Incident is major setback for Knights  Create a lot of bad publicity  Haymarket 4: leaders tried and convicted (hanged) for going against government America Federation of Labor (AFL)  Born in 1886  Was based on Craft Unions  Contract o If have contract actually have something that you can hold your employer too o Employer makes deal with employee when signs contract o If breaks contract can hold it against them o Greater level of influence than trying to take control over employer on day-to-day basis  Organizing o Hired good professional organizers o People who knew economy, trades Gompersism  Samuel Gompers o The most influential figure in labour in North America o Organizes Craft Unions around very clear principals (in US and Canada) o Committed to certain set of ideas o Make a lot of enemies o Ideas he followed allowed AFL to become most important labour body in North America  Original critic to the Knights  Craft Base o Gompers said if you were not skilled worker you could be replaced and if you could be replaced you have no leverage o If were going to build labour union that was going to last had to have skilled workers that were going to last o Wanted to control the trade (who gets trained, who commands it, how trade works) o Everyone who is in the trade is in the union  No Dual Unionism o Each union represents one trade o No more than one trade union representing a trade o Defeats the point and dilutes voice o When president of union speaks it is the voice of the trade  “Voice of Labour” o Gompers wants to be the voice of labour Forces Driving  Second industrial revolution: around 1900  Four factors drive innovation: 1. Communication 2. Transportation 3. Technology 4. Technique  Technology was the #1: o Huge driver in second industrial revolution o Canada builds too many railways o Second revolution: Was about making new things o First revolution: making things that could already be made but faster  Power Supply: o Power did not have to be near the plant anymore o Electricity was supplied so could work at night o Factories did not need windows o Could work longer hours in the winter when it got dark early o First industrial revolution: could not work all the time and winter was slow months  Plant Layout: o Ford Assembly Line: machine moves along the line and each worker does one thing o Tasks are broken down into most basic and repetitive o Assembly lines were also in food processing and agricultural processing o Products are more standardized (less distinct)  Chemical Innovations: o Chemicals to break down wood into pulp to be made into paper o Did not have to slice wood until it was really thin like before Managerial Strategies  Job ladder o Carrot: giving workers rewards for good behavior o Stick: punishing workers for not behaving properly o Create a hierarchy within the workplace o If workers work hard they will receive little promotions o Gives workers incentive to work harder o Ladders with little pay increments to reward workers who work hard and stay in line  Piece rates: o Paying by the piece o Built-in incentive to produce more o Paid more if produce more  Drive System: o Foremen would stand behind workers driving them on o Target a few people to pick on o Every person becomes motivated because do not want to be the one picked on o No one wanted to stick out Scientific Management and Taylorism  Frederick Taylor was associated with a lot of things in the second industrial revolution  Did not invent it but was good at promoting himself  Takes the mood of the time and gives voice to the thinking of a lot of business leaders  Conception vs. Execution: o Conception: thinking about how something is going to be made o Execution: actually making it o Before industrial revolution: worker was responsible for conception and execution o Now business leaders were responsible and gave ideas to workers o Inspired confidence in business leaders  Time-Motion Studies: o Scientific manager would chart out everything a worker did o Monitor how worker moved during work o Break down every movement and action of worker and force them to do it more scientifically o Figured out way to make workers more efficient Gompers’ Consumerism  Vs. Producerism o Craft workers thought of themselves as producers o Thought back to respect they commanded in society o Wanted to keep old traditions in new workplace o Gompers did not want all of concentration to be on what they are losing o New technology was giving more control to scientists/engineers, etc. o Wanted to talk about conditions, wages  Bread & Butter Unionism o In the long term workers would only stay loyal to unions that could actually make their lives better o If they can bargain better wages and conditions o Wanted leverage in the workplace o Focused on concrete ideas not on the past o Businesses thought that if they can drive down wages they can make a bigger profit o Gompers said that a society that had low wages and cheap goods is poor o Society with highly skilled workers, good quality products that are not cheap have higher standards of living Berlin, 1902  Trades and Labour Congress, 1883 o Congress of Canadian o Still with us today (Canadian Labour Congress now) o Is not a Union (it is a collection of unions) o National assemblies are for lobbying the federal government on giving Canadian labour a voice on the national issues  Gompers was worried that as a lot of outsiders came to Canada they would be willing to work for lower wages  Was not happy with the Trades and Labour Congress  TLC does not fit Gompers ideals at all  Did not have political independence  Passed a lot of policies about different social, cultural issues  Not a bread and butter kind of focus  Berlin, 1902: Trades and Labour Congress convention  Berlin is what Kitchener used to be called  Gompers made sure all of the new international AFL associations came to conference  Organized so they had a majority  Made the TLC perfectly in-lined with Gompers ideas  Main-stream labour movement was in the image of Gompers for a very long time Socialist Party of Canada  Mainstream movement joined in and lead some of opposition to immigration  Labour movement could not change views of government by themselves  Hostilities towards Asians was very high  Even organizations that saw themselves as more inclusive still would not accept immigrants  Radical movement’s connection to immigrant labour is strong  Wanted to organize all workers no matter where you were from or what skill level you had  Ex. Socialist Party of Canada  Immigrant Traditions o Fixated on revolution o Organized a lot of immigrants o Lots of immigrants that they organized already had experience with socialist parties  Politics sank deep into community life  Leaders were very proper, rigorous revolutionaries  Membership had concerns about being deported, job security, being vulnerable to bosses (wanted to act on this)  Leadership only wanted to focus on revolution  British Columbia o Where socialist party becomes strongest o Traditions were not always the best o Anti-Chinese feeling ran high in BC o Socialist Party of Canada did not resist this IWW & Wobblies  Wobblies are main organization at this time  Made most noise in organizing immigrant workers and in radical activity  Frightened employers and political leaders  Slogan of IWW was “We Shall Be All” o Means we shall be all members of IWW o Background does not matter, skill does not matter o As long as worked, IWW wanted to organize  Structure o IWW did not believe in breaking down organization at all o Did not break down by trade, by local o Was one organization o That is how to get the greatest strength  Activism o If joined, were not just a member o Were committing to being active o No difference between members and leaders o All people were expected to be activists and organizers o We shall all be part of the team even if we just joined  Authorities responded to IWW with force  Repressed IWW and diminished momentum  People would get fired, beaten up then people would get discouraged Methods of the IWW  Outreach o Very effective in going to even remote places o Wanted to spread organization o Organized women  Basics o Good to talk ambitiously about change when starting out o Also need to focus on basic things o Need to mobilize around basic issues o Not just about getting workers to think about basic issues o Take fact that employers will deny these things to get people to want to join and work together o Most basic bit of dignity for the workers  Culture o Try to get one person from each community to join o Once got one person from each cultural group they would spread the word to other people o Music used for culture outreach o Songs would convey IWW message o Catchy tune would attract people War Measures Act  Piece of legislation that gives government power to mobilize people for the war  Gives power to put people in army (if volunteer)  Take people that might resist war effort and silence them  Put people in camps if they were suspected of creating resent  Government now has sweeping power  Can ban organizations (ex. Banned IWW) “Win-the-War” Sentiment  First world war  At beginning were excited to go to war (get to travel, get to defend Britain against Germans, sense of adventure)  War was not like they imagined and now felt like they needed to win  Very grim feeling  Have to win the war because have to make good for sacrifices  Sense that other people have died turns into feeling that they could not have died in vain  Have to suck it up and win the war  Have to make sure sacrifices are not in vain  Mostly did not want Germans to win  Men who did not voluntarily go help their “brothers” would get white feathers pinned on their coats symbolizing cowardice  Anything that weakened the war effort was seen as treason Conscription Crisis  Everyone has to make contribution  Work hard, save money, forgo foods/goods to army  French Canadians do not feel that it is their fight  War seen as to protect British Empire  French only part of British Empire because lost war to Britain a while ago  Supported war but would not go and fight the war  French Canadians do not join the war effort in large numbers  Canada starts to run out of men, need more  English Canada feels French are being treasonous  Creates tensions in society between French and English 1913-1915 Depression  Part of cause of war was economic depression in years leading up to war  Catalysts was depression  After 1915: was growth  Massive mobilization for war effort  Many workers join the military  Many factories get restarted to churn out goods for war  Conditions get a lot better  Needs of the army were huge (ammunition, guns, trucks, etc.)  Union membership conditions got a lot better  Employer could not really fire workers because was no one to replace them  Builds sense of solidarity in workplaces because work was more available, more secure, bonded with workers  Also created division between Conservative Patriots and Radicalized Element  Conservative Patriots: o Tends to adopt the “Win-the-War” Sentiment o Hunker down attitude o Work hard and do not make a fuss o Mostly in central Canada: Ontario  Radicalized Element o Grows in numbers and energy as war goes on o Gets more frustrated as war goes on o Become larger and larger voice o Conservatives push back and friction rises o Tension
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