LIFESCI 2N03 Study Guide - Organic Food, Dipeptide, Calorie

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Published on 4 Oct 2014
School
McMaster University
Department
Life Sciences
Course
LIFESCI 2N03
1
LS 2N03 Human Nutrition for Life Sciences
D.M. Pincivero, 2013
WHAT IS NUTRITION?
Latin derivative, nutritio, nourish
“Alltheprocessesinvolvedinthetakinginandutilizationoffoodsubstancesby
which growth, repair, and maintenance of activities in the body as a whole or in
any of its parts are accomplished. Includes ingestion, digestion, absorption, and
metabolism (assimilation). Some nutrients are capable of being stored by the
bodyinvariousformsanddrawnuponwhenthefoodintakeisnotsufficient.”
Tabers Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary
What is food?
“Anymaterialthatprovidesthenutritiverequirementsofanorganismtomaintaingrowthand
physicalwellbeing.”
Tabers Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary
Is food important?......obviously, YES.
What role does food play in the world?
Social Welfare
Economic Prosperity/Security
Geopolitics
Armed Conflicts
Most Canadians are extremely privileged
and are not aware of food shortages
around the world because food is so
abundant at fairly reasonable prices.
In the US there is a food stamp
program for those who are
unemployed etc. This raises
political issues based on
taxes.
Many countries that cannot grow
food and are dependant on
importing food, which has led to
armed conflict. Groups vie to
control the food because if you
can control the food then you
have bargaining and political
power.
Bargaining and political power often
leads to armed conflict.
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2
LS 2N03 Human Nutrition for Life Sciences
D.M. Pincivero, 2013
FOOD, SCIENCE AND WORLD PEACE
Norman Borlaug (Mar 25, 1914 Sept 12, 2009)
1970 Nobel Peace Prize
Invented a new strain of wheat (dwarf) which was disease resistant
and generated high yields to combat world hunger.
Exported the new strain to Central America, Middle East, India,
Pakistan, Africa
WHY ISNUTRITION IMPORTANT?
Nutrition can prevent disease.
a. Diseases caused by nutrient deficiency:
scurvy, goiter, rickets
b. Diseases influenced by nutrition:
chronic diseases such as heart disease
c. Diseases in which nutrition plays a role:
osteoarthritis, osteoporosis
He developed a new strain of wheat which was disease and wind damage
resistant. The very long tall wheat, can topple over and breaks before the
grains can be yielded. The dwarf wheat is less prone to buckling and breakage
and therefore increases the yield.
Dealt with a lot of hunger problems and food shortages in countries that have
trouble growing wheat.
1:1 relationship
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3
LS 2N03 Human Nutrition for Life Sciences
D.M. Pincivero, 2013
NUTRITION AND OBESITY IN CANADA
Whydoweeatthewaywedo?......we’reinfluenced
1) Physiological hunger
2) Sensory stimulation
Food flavour: taste and smell
Texture: “feel”offood– crisp, chewy, smooth
3) Personal preferences
4) Habits: 3 meals/day
5) Ethnic heritage or tradition
One of the strongest influences on our eating habits/patterns
a) Cultural beliefs and traditions
b) Religion established rules
What do we know about obesity? It has gone up, it is staying up.
In Canada, US, etc. - there is a big increase in the % of the population that
is characterized as obese and it is consistent across age spectrum. it is
known as an "epidemic". Different from most diseases, as most are
caused by person to person transfer of microorganism. You can't give
someone obesity. The increase in numbers are over a very short time.
Lots of health related and economic
problems caused by obesity. It is
important because of its strain on the
health care system.
Driven by hormones and the nervous system.
We feel sensations of hunger and we seek to alleviate perceptions by eating. It is instinctive.
We associate pleasurable experiences with eating food.
Studies suggest humans prefer the texture of food rather than the taste.
Ex. Skim Milk vs. 2% - the fat content is very different, 2% is thick, where as skim is like water.
Titanium dioxide used to be added to skim milk to give it texture, but is not healthy to ingest.
Food we select is based upon experiences and what we are raised with and exposed to. Over time as our
perceptions become shaped we form our own experiences we develop personal preferences.
There is no scientific evidence for 3 meals a day. It is just a habit we have developed here in Canada based
on our life style but there is no evidence to suggest that it is how humans are supposed to eat.
Dictated by food availability in certain geographic locations.
Ex. Rhinoceros Beetle - source of vitamin A and protein. It
is a delicacy and tradition in some countries however we
would not eat it in Canada.
Certain religions have rules: what and when we should be eating
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Document Summary

Some nutrients are capable of being stored by the body in various forms and drawn upon when the food intake is not sufficient. Any material that provides the nutritive requirements of an organism to maintain growth and physical well being. Norman borlaug (mar 25, 1914 sept 12, 2009) Invented a new strain of wheat (dwarf) which was disease resistant and generated high yields to combat world hunger: exported the new strain to central america, middle east, india, Nutrition can prevent disease: diseases caused by nutrient deficiency: scurvy, goiter, rickets, diseases influenced by nutrition: chronic diseases such as heart disease, diseases in which nutrition plays a role: osteoarthritis, osteoporosis. Why do we eat the way we do?we"re influenced: physiological hunger, sensory stimulation. Feel of food crisp, chewy, smooth: personal preferences, habits: 3 meals/day, ethnic heritage or tradition. One of the strongest influences on our eating habits/patterns: cultural beliefs and traditions, religion established rules.

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