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LINGUIST 1ZZ3- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 55 pages long!)


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LINGUIST 1ZZ3
Professor
Nikolai Penner
Study Guide
Final

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McMaster
LINGUIST 1ZZ3
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Nature of Human Language
Communicate thoughts and feelings
Create art
Education
Social Networking
Language is composed of smaller units
Morphines
Phonemes
Combining sounds together - syllables
Grammar of Language:
Sounds: Phonetics 1.
Sound Patterns: Phonology 2.
Structure of Words: Morphology 3.
Arrangement of Words: Syntax 4.
Meaning of Linguistic Units: Semantics 5.
Grammar: "can you pass me the salt?" - you are physically able to or not
We know the asker wants the salt (pragmatics)
Languages consists of building blocks
Sounds -> syllables/morphemes -> words
Words -> Groups of Words -> Sentences
Sentences -> Paragraphs - > Texts
Not Studying:
Phonetics :study of sounds, acoustic, and articulation
Phonology: pattern of sounds
Morphology: Internal
Studying:
morphology: classification of words into parts of speech
Syntax: stringing several words together to form larger units
Semantics: meaning of words and sentences
Pragmatics: how is language used by speakers in real life (how do we figure out if it is sarcastic, with humor, etc.)
Linguistic Competence:
All languages have grammar (grammar = rules, we need them to define how to communicate)
If they did not have grammar, we would not be able to learn them as children
All grammars are different, but equal (somewhat alike or equally complex, not more or less complex)
English doesn't have as many inflections as Slavic languages, but does not mean difference in complexity
We can learn a lot about our brain by studying the grammars of human languages
Word Order: Canadians like hockey (rearrange the three words in different order)
Only one word order is correct
Canadians (the ones who do the liking) like hockey (the object of affection)
Morphology: syntactic categories (parts of speech)
You cannot analyze a sentence structure if you have to think hard to identify parts of speech for the words
8 Parts of Speech
Adjectives (modify nouns): red, happy (
Adverbs (modify verbs): often, slowly
Interjections (express emotions): bravo, wow
Conjunctions (combine words): and, but, therefore
Nouns (people, things, places, or ideas): chair
Prepositions (stand in front of nouns): with, in, on
Verbs (actions): eating, sleep, study
Pronouns (replace nouns): he, she, it
One Word Sentences
Where are you going? -> home (implies I am going home)
Distribution
Noun: usually occurs with (after) a determiner (a car, the book)
Verb: often appears with auxiliary verbs (has gone, will be travelling)
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Some verbs have semantic meaning (eat), but some verbs don't (has)
Has = helping or auxiliary verb
Adjective: appears with a degree word, modify nouns
Very competitive, rather pretty
Parts of Speech = Syntactic Categories
Determiner/Article: the article is used to define and modify the noun
Definite Article (the) - The cat was white and looked hungry
Indefinite Article (a/an) - I saw a cat outside my window
Noun: used to name a person, animal, place, or thing, or abstraction
Kids usually start with concrete nouns
Pronoun: Replace a noun
He, some, none, which, you
Make our sentences clearer and less cumbersome and less repetitive
Verb: Most important part of the sentence in English
Asserts something about the subject of the sentence
Subject is do-er of the action
Express actions, events, or states of being (nucleus of the predicate of a sentence)
E.g. John came back from holidays
Adjective: modifies noun by providing additional describing, identifying, or quantifying words
In English, usually appear before the noun it modifies
Adverb: modify a verb, adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause
Indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree, and answers questions such as "how", "when", "where", and "how much"
E.g. She is working hard
E.g. John lives there
E.g. She is always busy
E.g. He smokes a lot
Preposition: links nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other words in a sentence
Usually indicates the temporal, spatial, or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence
Word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition
Conjunction: link words, phrases, and clauses
Coordinating conjunction: join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses (and, but, or)
Independent clauses: can survive on their own
E.g. My parent can sing and dance
Subordinating conjunction: introduce a dependent clause and identify the nature of the relationship among clauses
Adverbial conjunctions: link two separate sentences and require a semi-colon (therefore, however, thus, then, otherwise)
Interjection: conveys emotion
added to a sentence or replace a sentence
Not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence and is usually followed by an exclamation mark
Lexical Categories (Function to provide meaning)
Verb
Noun/Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Non-Lexical Categories (Functional words, grammatical function rather than a meaning function)
Auxiliary Verbs
Modal Verbs
Degree Words
Determiner
Conjunction
Numerals: one, two, three
Quantifiers: all, most, many
Particles: Take up, put off
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