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MUSIC 1A03 (19)

Music 1A03 Test 1 Review.docx

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Lara Housez

Terms:  Melody: a single line of notes heard in succession as a coherent unit  Major mode: scale produced by singing “do-re-mi” or playing white keys on piano from C to C with sound often described as bring or happy  Minor mode: scale produced by playing white keys on piano between A and A. sound often described as dark and sad  Notes: smallest unit of music, building blocks of which larger structures are created  Timbre: character/quality of a sound  Dynamics: volume of sound, determined by size (amplitude) of each sound wave  Phrases: brief musical statement  Rhythm: ordering of music through time  Form: structure of a musical work; the way in which its individual units are put together  Cadence: point of arrival signaling the end of a musical unit  Meter: underlying pattern of beats that maintains itself consistently  Word-music relationship: the way a text influences our hearing of the music, and the way music affects our perception of the words  Conjunct motion: melodic motion of pitches by step  Disjunct motion: melodic motion of pitches by leap  Measure: rhythmic unit indicated by bar lines in notated music, that presents one complete statement of the meter  Harmony: sound created by multiple voices playing/singing together  Genre: category of work, determined by a combination of its performance medium and its social function  Scale: series of notes providing essential pitch building blocks of melody  Octave: interval between two pitches of the same name (C to C, G to G, etc.) the frequency of higher pitch is twice than that of lower pitch  Interval: distance between two pitches  Key: central note and mode on which a melody/piece is based  Chord: three or more notes played or sung at same moment  Texture: the number and general relationship of musical lines or voices to one another  Monophonic: texture consisting of a single melodic line (thin texture)  Homophonic: musical texture where melody is performed with a supporting accompaniment (in between texture)  Polyphonic: musical texture consisting of multiple lines of equal importance (thick texture) Form: Based on 3 possibilities: 1. Repetition 2. Variation 3. Contrast  AABB = binary form  ABA = ternary form Middle Ages: 476-1425 CE  Composers: o Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) o Perotin (c. 1180-early 1200) o Leonin (dies c. 1201) o Alfonso el Sabio (1221-1284) o Guillame de Machaut (c. 1300-1377) o Francesco Landini (c. 1325-1397) o Guillame Dufay (1397-1474)  Music created mainly by monks, nuns, and priests  Church dominated intellectual and cultural life  Monks chant 9 times a day o Chanted complete cycle of 150 chants each week (approx.. 20 a day)  Divine Office st o Prime (1 hrdr of day; 6AM) o Terce (3 hour of day; 9AM) o Sext (6 hour of day; 12PM) o None (9 hour of day; 3PM) o Vespers (twilight) o Compline (before bed) o Matins (after midnight) o Laud (at daybreak)  Principal elements of Mass o Foremass 1. Introit (proper) 2. Kyrie (lord have mercy) [ordinary] 3. Gloria (glory to god) [ordinary] 4. Collect (prayer) 5. Epistle (reading) 6. Gradual (proper) 7. Alleluia (proper) 8. Gospel (reading, sermon) 9. Credo (I believe) [ordinary] o Eucharist (numbers continue) 1. Offertory (proper) 2. Sanctus (holy, holy, holy) [ordinary] 3. Agnus dei (lamb of god) [ordinary] 4. Communion (proper) 5. Ite missa est (go, it is finished) [ordinary]  Pope Gregory (c. 540-604) received plainchant directly from holy spirit in shape of dove o Plainchant was taught orally, not written down until 900’s o “Caro Mea” Mass from the feast of Corpus Christi (c. 1275)  1000-1200 = revival of arts and many universities open (Oxford, Paris, Bologna)  Guido of Arezzo (c. 991-1033) o Monk and theorist o Invented 4 line staff o Guidonian hand  Sacred music o Latin o A cappella  Secular o Any language other than Latin o Voice + instrumental accompaniment  Troubadours (1100-1220) o Poets an
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