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music 2F03finals.pdf

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Andrew Mitchell

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MissedJanuary0713921 AMJust went through syllabus httpsnotesolutioncomnotes82864 music 2F03finals Page 1 Class 2January0813436 PMPitch and related terminologypitch term that refers to a quality of that sound that distinguishes a high sound from a low sound in music some sounds are high and some are low and then there is a whole range between those 2 extremes and in music certain points along that continuum are discrete pitchesIn music we give pitchesletter namesA GMelodytune consists of a number of things but one of the very important things it consists of is a seriessuccession of pitches a melody is made up of a succession of pitches one pitch after the other it is a line of music Most of the time when we listen to music the melody is the most prominent to usKey is a term that is used to understand how pitches are organized in a piece of music how they are put together bc you can tput pitches together randomly in music there are underlying principles in it and key is one of them Key a particular grouping of pitches and this group of pitches will be the underlyingthe fundamental pitches of that piece of musicThere are different types of keys major and minor keys Major keys are used when a composer wants to express positive emotions Minor keys used by a composer to express a more negative emotions Notes in akey are arranged in a scaleScale taking notes in a key and arranging them from lowest to highest or opposite order arranging the notes in orderDo re mi fa sol la ti dononsense syllables applied to the various pitches in a scale example shown Sound of music video of maria singing do re me songMinor scale is different and you dont start on do you start on la and change fa and sol into fi and deInterval in daily life it means a duration of space ie In a play there is an intermission and you call it an interval a space between one act of play and the otherIn music it has to do with measurement its the distance between one pitch and the other one ie Some notes are fairly close to each otherdo and re are right next to each other in the scale is a small interval butdo and so are further away from each other so its a wider intervalIntervals are identified by numbersdo to re are the 2nd there is no space between them do to mi is a third and do to fa 4th and do to so 5th and do to la 6th and do to ti is a 7th and do to do8th octavenotes that are an octave apart have a similarity of sounds so you get the same letter name Do to so5th and is a strong sounding interval and 5th are used in fan fairs What are fan fairs sued for Hunting royalty or military exploits so very quickly with 2 notes a composer can communicatea particular association to the audience The interval ti to do is a small interval very small intervalThe do re mes arent the same intervals measurement apart like do to re isnt as close as ti is to do Ti to do is a very small intervalcan add a lot of tension to music and keep the do removed and not landing on it can generate a lot of tension and anticipation which can generate a lot of affect in music Tonicin a scale the tonic is the do an important note in a key and in music we name a key by the important note the one you put in beginning and end of a scaleThere is a sense of arrival when that do note is landed on and the very last note in music is the tonic which provides that sense of closure Tonal music based on a central tonekey so all the notes played in the piece are in that key Atonal music that lacks tonal center so they play notes that are out of key Search more about tonal and atonalMelodyContour shape Term that refers to the shape of somethingMany melodies start lower and at some point build to a higher point and then they fall down a sort of arch shape a common shape Other shapes might have a melody that is static and doesnt move too much ie Marry had a little lamb doesnt go to far its a static contour or might have a melody that dips down and then goes up The contour will affect the quality of the music There is an association that we have in music between higher pitch and a sense of increasing tension as melody rises we feelsense of anticipation and tension and as it goes down there is a relaxing affectthus contour can affect emotional quality of musicConjunct and disjunct melodiesConjunct melody in which the pitches from one to the next move the intervals are fairly small ie Marry had a little lamb is fairly conjunct Disjunct bigger jumps between pitches ie Happy birthday twinkle twinkle also has a bigger jump in the beginning as wellIn 20th century music the quality is that there is a lot of disjunct in the music and your going up and down quiet erratically and that tends to be off puttingit tends to destabilize the listener which is a very powerful affectthat affect is there is because we are useto listening to fairly conjunct music much of the melody has conjunct movementso if something moves very erratically then ppl are disoriented and that since of orientation is used in music and movies to put ppl on edgeRangea term that refers to the distance between the lowest notes in a piece of musicmelody and the highest this is the overallrange Range can affect the immotive quality of the melody Narrow ranges ie Simple children songs are characterized by narrow ranges which helps with its simplicity ie Marry had alittle lamb has a range of 5th so it sounds simpleSongs with a highergreater range can sound a lot more expensive and complex ie Somewhere over the rainbow PhrasesMusic quiet often is divided up into phrases ie Twinkle twinklehappy birthday ie Twinkle twinkle little star how I wonder what youthats a phrase in itself when you get there you close off the section and then something new happens afterAntecedent and consequent Phrases in music are organized in this way organized in pairs Antecedent phrase sounds unfinished ie First part of twinkle twinkle and sounds incompletetwinkle twinkle little staruntil you get the rest of ithow I wonder what you areConsequent phrasesounds more completeHow to remember A comes before C in music so antecedent is incomplete until consequent comes inCCadence chords that are played and can be used in melody to refer to a point of the melody of the end of the phrase where you have the feeling of rest where things are coming to an end Is the end of a section in a melody Theme and motive Both are similar but there is a distinction between the two In film music analyses theme and motive are used interchangeably but in music they have more specific meaningsmusic 2F03finals Page 2 Both of the terms refer to segments of the melody that recur throughout the composition Theme a longer melodic segment that recurs ie Entire phrases of music that recurs throughout the compositionMotive shorter melodic segment that recurs can be as short as 2 or 3 notesand that motive doesnt have to come back exactly the same every time it just has to be recognizable ie In twinkle twinkle the over riding motive in that tune isthe idea of a note and its followed by the same note that is shortthe pitch keeps changing but its the idea that you have 2 notes music 2F03finals Page 3
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