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Pop Music Entire Years Notes

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Simon Wood

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Pop Music – Simon Wood 9/12/2012 3:37:00 PM [email protected] put course title, Music 2II3, in subject line of emails First chunk of semester spent on pre WW2 Will go up to the 1980‟s, hip hop, MTV, music videos Notes not necessary on readings, there for a big picture view. Testing – Saturday, September 29 th9:30 a.m. 25% 2 and ½ weeks th  Saturday, October 27 9:30 a.m. 30% 4 weeks, not cumulative  Exam 45% is cumulative, but weighted so that majority of questions are from the final third of the course. o Multiple Choice o 50 minutes What is Popular Music? Sam Phillips, owned a record company, small, Called Sun Records in Memphis, 1954, he is white, colour is an important part of this story. Recorded a lot of white and black artists. Well respected in both communities, notices thing changing in the U.S., more and more music written by black artists was being played on the radio, but not only black artists were listening, white teenagers tuning into this culture. A lot of people thought this was bad though, white people that black culture was of lesser value and beneath them, people were annoyed that there children were tuning into this. Sam said something to his assistant, Marianne Cyster, “if I can find a white man who sounds like a black man I could make a million dollars”, realizing there was so much resistance that if he could capture that sound in a more acceptable package to whites he would make money. This was alleged and he said he never said it. Do not know the truth! He should have said it because nothing would have summed up what was happening in western society so concisely. Months after this alleged event Elvis Presley walked in to his office and the man that discover him was Sam Phillips. The idea of a white man sounding like a black man, as ridiculous as that sounds to us now was a real issue then. All of this tell us that modern rock and roll was born when Elvis came about but not true, that is just when we realized it was there. Why 1954? Intersection, when things that have been occurring over decades all come together, if it hadn‟t been Elvis it would have been someone else, it had been happening for over 150 years. The real man who invented rock and roll, the black man who sounded like a white man, Chuck Barry What is Popular Music?  Put against art/classical music Post World War 2 – origins of 3 prexisting styles, rhythm and blues (black culture), country and western (rural white culture), and tin pan alley (Urban white, northern)  These three style will begin to merge and through this we get the sound that is rock and roll, and from that the roots of all popular music today.  How did they come together? To develop popular music, we need an industry, very much focused on what society wants at that point in time. In past there was no middle class and therefore there was no popular music as those are the ones who buy music. Large Urban population, can‟t get famous in the country as there are not enough people there, process of rural to urban shift which has been going on for centuries, but while most people are in the country no may to have popular music Copyright Law, have to protect the people who create the music so ideas are not stolen and used Technologies of Mass Production and Broadcasting – if you have to go town to town with your guitar no way to be famous, but through t.v., internet, radio, etc. as well as machinery that can produce the albums. Western Popular music is this unique blend of black and white culture that can happen no where else. Black culture in North America  North American Slave Trade – 1619-1863  First year that a group of Africans were kidnapped and brought to North America to be a slave.  Lasts for 250 year, ends technically, January 1sy, Abraham Lincoln signs the Emancipation Proclamation, slavery is now abolished, the middle of the civil war (1861-1865) it is said that the Civil War was fought over slavery but not accurate, did not actually end until the end of the civil war.  Slaves were murdered, abused, etc., but without this occurrence we don‟t get popular western music. I forced black and white society together for the first time without a choice, and whether with or without intention they begin to influence each other. Influenced the entire western hemisphere as the went to South America also.  In Africa there is a great emphasis on percussion instrument, think of the music of South America, Caribbean, Tango, etc. all West African influence. So why is it so different in North America?  Religion! Brought to all shores of the Americas, several colonial powers, British, French, Spanish, Portuguese. Central and South America divided between Spanish and Portuguese, with some French Influences. France also had a huge are in Canada and New Orleans, lost most of there land fairly early on to the British. Most of N.A. belonged to the British, English were protestant while others were all Catholic. Catholic slave owners didn‟t care about what there slaves did with there free time, allowed to engage in cultural practices, so African culture remained more so in Catholic areas. Protestant slave owners not ok with this, wanted to save the souls of the heathens. Much greater limitations on music, dancing, etc. Slaves that ended up in N.A. new that they needed to figure out a way to merge there culture or there would no last long. African Retentions are much less obvious in North America. African Retentions:  Interest in percussive and distorted timbres (quality of a sound), sharp distinct sound, distorted didn‟t have a bad connotation in Western Africa, seen as an overflow of emotion, a high level of commitment and intensity.  Value in the Ecstatic and the Cathartic, totally spent after something that you can‟t move, seen as commitment, wonderful level of intensity  Rhythmic complexity – syncopation  Use of riffs – a short self contained musical fragment that repeats as the basis for th a longer composition, similar to a motif (Beethoven‟s 5 ), in west African tradition you play it exactly as is, where a motif you manipulate it as much as you can. Makes music circular in structure, never know when it will change, it is a loop. Music is based on the idea of music as beat/loop. Beethoven‟s music is linear, it has a start, goes somewhere different and then comes home.  Use of call and response, can take on many attributes, musicians and an audience, two musicians. The interaction between audience and musicians is critical, it creates energy, participation is important. TSO you cheer you are kicked out, no interaction. Popular music is all about being part of the performance and interaction. Early Music of African Americans (pre-Civil War) is primarily vocal (acapella). We know that there was music with slaves. They would sing Work Songs. Recording Technology invented my Edison in 1877, a decade past slavery was gone. We are listening to a chain gang of African American Prisoners taken out to cut down a tree. The reason we have music is because of primary documents of what they heard at the time. This is recognizable as the same tradition. Work Songs:  Help pass the time, set pace, coordinate work. Absolute boredom, poor health of slaves, only value was if you were healthy, if not you would be replaced and murdered, don‟t sing the song faster then what the weakest member of the group can do.  Song leader, Introduction and Chapter 9/12/2012 3:37:00 PM What makes music popular? Stylistic elements came across from African American culture, still there today. The Work Song. (chain gang technology not around in time of slavery to have actual recordings) Song Leader led this music, not real songs, but strings so ideas all in his head and strung them together for entertainment but also for the sake of survival. Old Alabama 1947 433 433 443 4333 4333 aab aab aab aaab aaab Lyrics structure is the Lower case letters Numbers are how many measures are in the line, how long it takes for the line to unfold. Distortion – signifies a level of investment and commitment, disapproved of in white European culture. This is song with distortion, roughness in voice, seen as more esthetically pleasing sound. When they sing notes they don‟t hit with absolute accuracy but scoops into it. All seen as a way to carry emotion, not approved of by white culture. Call and Response is also an African Retention, First guy you hear singing is the song leader, and then every one joins in, Song Leader best at improvising and connecting the bits, the rest of the workers know all the bits just not as well as the song leader. The enter as soon once they realize what it is, enter sooner the second time because they know what is coming. Never start right at the beginning to wait and see what he does, part of what made it entertaining as they didn‟t know what was coming. Is process over product, what is important in music is not about what is right now but what was happening in the moment, also an African retention. The song leader is singing a melody, but no one person is doing exactly the same thing, song on various notes for various lengths, similar idea but each person had own idea, it is individuality within community. Everyone is equal, dong the same thing, every one is going long with what is happening in the community but everyone has room for self expression. Not like classical music where the Orchestra is expected to do exactly what is written. Folk Music Performed by amateurs (don‟t do it for a living) For self and community entertainment Oral tradition, learn through elders, not written down, listen to it until you figure out how to do it on your own, constantly changing because of this, why we have regional styles of folk music. No body owns these songs they belong to the community. More concern with tradition than innovation (lacking “self-consciousness), try to do it exactly how it was taught to people, don‟t want to change it. If you decide to do it for a living you have to change it to make it original, not popular in folk music. Wanting to make a mark is the sign of someone in popular music. Sacred Music Practice Previous was secular. The type of music that occurred under protestant slave owners is different than anywhere else as they are trying to convert them and therefore the music fuses. Encouraged to match practices to Protestant ones. Hymns sung in white churches, hymn books with melodies written out but the majority of people couldn‟t read music, just responded to what minister said. African Americans forced to adapt, but don‟t really adapt but modify, get hymn books, and rewrite the melodies. In Protestantism the words are the most important, Gad has to hear the words. Not the case in the African American church, melody just as important. Ocean of sound as the notes were held and sung. In Protestantism everyone has to sing. In African American the spirit falls on the congregation, start speaking in tongues, etc, getting closer to the lord, in a white church thought as a loss of control. “Lined Hymn” No Date  Distortion of vocal timbre  Music is perceived very differently in this  Not slaves, a later recorded track American Civil War (1861-1865) Slavery ends with this Separation of Church and State America became a colony with the War of independence in 1870‟s Thumbnail sketch of war was fought to end slavery. Not really true, set into action when U.S. became a colony. Set up because they wanted out of the tyranny of U.S., supposed to be a secular nation. Set up treaty with Ottoman Empire, Islamic nation, debating setting up with U.S., but in a unanimous decision they said yes, as they were not a Christian nation, therefore ok to set up with Mohammed nation. Thomas Jefferson a big part of this equality. All men were created equal, yet had millions involved of slavery, contradicts itself, economy based on slavery. They had believed slavery would be done soon as it was no longer in use in Northern States. And non profitable in Southern States, but then the Cotton Gin was created by Eli Whitney, now took off like a bat out of hell in the first half of the 1800‟s, North tries to stop this, but south doesn‟t want it stopped. New stated being created at this time, had to take on title of free state or slave state, initially equally balanced, but then more states were being created and it was going to through things out of balance, and no one wanted to give up power. So yes war was about slavery but not really. 1963 Abraham Lincoln signs Emancipation Proclamation, but doesn‟t end until the end of the war when the North wins the war. Post Slavery Period The south was very resentful of this and they made it very difficult for African Americans, where they could eat, how many could stand on a street corner, what to do if a white woman is walking down the sidewalk, etc. If you didn‟t you would go to jail and were often beaten and murdered. Institutionalized racism. Slavery was over but till a rough place to be. We start to see the shift, moving our of rural areas and into urban areas, start creating black communities especially along the Mississippi. New forms of culture were appearing now, in 1880‟s and 1890‟s. Took this long because people spent their lives as slaves and told they were free, but in reality were not, were hardwired to think one way and it is not easy to change. Have to wait for the new generation for there to be changes, a generation of people who have spent their lives free and as the come into adulthood they realize that the stories and ways of being in the world are no longer representative of what was the music of the past, now want to describe themselves. Jazz and Rag Time created, urban styles, in the new communities of people, especially in the Mississippi. There is a third style that first occurs in the rural areas. Blues. Test – Cover Everything up to test. Will provide a study guide, will be poster this week sometime. Include a list of the audio files that will be on the test, a list of reading sections to reread and look at in some detail. Will be some test questions about these reading sections. General overview of that we covered. Guestimating what we get through next Wednesday. We will talk about the test more next week. The Blues is a music that incorporates the style of the African American culture Country/ Rural Blues Practiced by a single, male individual who travels from town to town in a small area accompanying himself on an acoustic guitar. Had a swooping sound, came to be associated with a lament, gives a voice to your troubles. Not about complaining but letting other people know that they aren‟t the only one with troubles. Themes include: Travel(couldn‟t travel, the only time slaves did was when they were sold, had to try and travel to get a job), Economics (no jobs, hard to get, at least when they were a slave they didn‟t have to worry about because they had no money and even if they did they were property so they couldn‟t buy anything, now have to worry about this)and Love (as a slave don‟t get to choose who you love, decision was made for you, get to make choices in relationships.) We get to hear all of this in the blues. About their struggles, everything that had happened to their parents and realizing how bad things had been and still were. Expressing how new everything was. Musical Structure also  12 measure phrases – only one based on this  a-a-b lyric pattern – based off of work songs it is believed  call and response between guitar and voice  associative coherence –make sense out of the music by connecting things together, a lot have deeper meaning then what the lyrics simply say. Sunday Morning Blues, has a job he hates, on the weekend can go an party has enough money to do that, then realized when the week roles around again that he can‟t change anything because he cant save his money because he goes and blows it to relieve stress. Eagle flies on Friday, Saturday go out and play, Sunday go and pray. Going to be in this trap for the rest of life, begging to get out of this system.  floating pool of verse – similar to work song, thousands of ideas just floating around, construct songs in real time based on what they heard in that town. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 I IV I V IV I a a b Melodies and Chords. What they are. The Blues tell you exactly what chords to play, one of the only styles of music to do this. 12 bars blues is wired into Western Culture, part of the reason why the blues structure is so recognizable is because it is laid out so strictly, incredibly rigid in terms of structure. Blind Willie McTell (1898-1959) 1929 recorded song “Travelin‟ Blues”, one of the first recorded example of this type of blues, started with spoken narrative. Partway down the blues section starts, has associative coherence. Distortion, Swooping, Acoustic Guitar, AAB form, This is an early country blues recording, this is a style of music emerging into professionalism, he earned his living from playing guitar yet esthetically he still is a folk artist. N longer being contained to African American communities, more people are starting to hear it and as it emerges if becomes a professional music culture. In fact this song is only 10 and a half bars long because each section is only 3 and a half bars long. Does it because he can, only him, no one to confuse, the more people you have the more you have to rehearse or even have music, but when performing alone he does it he can and because that is simply the way he sang the song. This is how he has always how he did it, if you heard him perform it the next night it may be different. Not Self conscious of what he is doing. Is not a professional in his mind, but shifting that way. About travel and economics. Robert Johnson (1911-1938) Most famous country blues musician in history. Did things on the guitar that no one before him had ever done. Wildly larger then life character. Started the 27 club. He was poisoned, unknown by who. Used to go into clubs where jazz musician were playing he would bring his guitar in a play, told him he sucked, disappeared for 18 months and came back onto the scene as the best guitar player in history. Story about him meeting the devil and him offering his life to if he can be the best guitar player. History is starting to be filled in, believed he went to Memphis and learned with some of the jazz musicians around. “Sweet Home Chicago? (November, 1936) Intro Vrs 1 Vrs 2 Vrs 3 Vrs 4 Vrs 5 Vrs 6 Outro 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 2 Actually has an intro and outro, this is new Has a very specific idea of what is to be done, well planned, thought out and practice, sets up what‟s going to happen, uses dynamics, starts louder and then gets quieter into the song. Strong musical ability, shows that he is a professional, innovates and thinks about his music, does things to try to make himself unique.  Even Bar Count  Intro and Outro  Call and response  Demonstrates Self-consciousness  Style change from McTell to Johnsons shows style becoming professional  Changes in the Black Community (increasing access to jobs, increasing numbers of black communities in urban areas) have made African Americans a consumer demographics. Decide to start making for them specifically, even though they are still the most marginalized.  Blues artists now recording because a market exists for blues records. Previously thought no one would find interesting. Lecture 3 – Development of the Euro-American Music Industry 9/12/2012 3:37:00 PM Midterm – check Avenue to find out where midterm will be  Multiple Choice, everything, even listening  Majority of questions will deal with lecture material, if he said it or it was up on board it could be in the test questions.  Have to know names and dates, order in which things happen  Textbook questions, go through the reading sections in the study guide, when studying these sections know that there are text questions based on those questions, each reading section has a title, keep title of section in when reading these sections.  Listening, 30 second sections played twice, last 6 questions are listening, 3 songs, 2 questions each. What style of music? What form is it? Who is the artist? When it was recorded? Concept questions.  Low 30‟s for number of questions. More like a quiz.  Identify name, what were they responsible, date questions, concept questions. Important Event for the “Standardization of Music” Europe provides technology and industry that is needed for them music industry  1453 – printing press, allowed for mass production  1557 – Queen Mary – Stationer‟s Company – first copyright law, could take someone‟s pamphlet get copy‟s made and then undercut the person who came up with the idea initially. The idea that ideas belonged to people didn‟t exist. Pamphleteers went to the Queen and saw an opportunity to get people to like her, all pamphlets had to go through her and in return she would give soul rights to their ideas and have people go around making sure no one is selling pamphlets and if they found someone doing it then they would have to pay a copyright fee, called royalties, went through the queen.  1831 – Amendments to the copyright law to cover sheet music. U.S. develops copyright laws early, start to look at it to see how it can be amended and made better. Expanded to sheet music. Tells us that by 1831 there were enough people in the U.S. trying to make a living as song writers that the government had to change the laws, music industry is starting to take shape Minstrel Show and Parlour Music Minstrel Show  Variety show that depicted African-American in a negative light. Mock representation, still in time of slavery. Singers, dancers, comedians, actors, etc. everyone would appear in what was termed blackface, take cork and burn it, created black makeup essentially and would all go out with this on.  Been around for a very long time  Minstrel show orchestra - Acoustic guitar, banjo, fiddle, one or two percussion instruments i.e. tambourine, sticks (known as the bones)  Presentation is very distasteful, simplistic, naïve, childlike, suggested slavery a good idea so that they could look after them. Songs echoed this  Most important composer was Steven Foster, believed to be the first important song writer, Camptown Races Sing Their Song o “massa‟s in de cold, cold ground” 1852 o Characteristics  Guitar Accompaniment  Vocal Control – is white culture, written by white song writers for white listeners, performers were white. NOT black culture, in black culture not about control, but distortion. In this case listening to the voice and ignore all else, northern European value of control. Demonstrated the divide of white culture and black. o Idea is that master has died and all the slaves are crying because they lost their “father” Parlour Music  Looks different but essentially the same thing. Shows another thing that is needed for music industry….A Middle Class…..that‟s who buys stuff. For thousands of years there was the aristocracy and then the lower class, until the Industrial Revolution.  The Industrial Revolution – marks the period where we stop trying to scratch out a living on the farm but move into cities, Urbanization, shift away from a living of growing food but by doing something else. Marked by important transitions. Shift away from monarchies to elected democracies. Also see transition of an economy based on barter to one based on banking. Can‟t amass wealth when bartering. Mesopotamians came up with banking. Beginning of amassing wealth and heading it down from generation to generation. Some who were in the lower class begin to climb the ladder and make it to middle class. By buying things in large amounts is what the music industry needs to survive. That is what the middle class does.  Women in family now become useless because they don‟t need to work, esthetics, painted nails, big dresses. Trying to be appealing to men, vulnerable, unable to do things.  Luxury Items – Piano – symbol of wealth, women start playing piano, useless, lots of maintenance, if you can afford to buy, maintain, and afford to teach your women to play this it is a sign of wealth  Profession song writers designing music especially for these people  “Believe Me, If All Those Endearing Young Charms – Thomas Moore (early 1800‟s) Intro Vrs 1 Vrs 2 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 A A B A A A B A  On the verge of popular music. Proper young women singing this, it became part of courting process, specially in business world, fathers matching their children. Process to who sings and who plays piano.  Characteristics: o Piano Accompaniment – defining part of parlour music o Themes – Loyalty, honesty, control, restraint, all things that one is looking for in a good match. A society which wishes to deny passions, but marry who your family says is appropriate to advance family. All parlour songs had music like this, it was what was considered appropriate for young women to sing. o Vocal Control –standing very still, straight back, hand together, denial of physical action, completely at odds with African American music. Very similar to Minstrel songs, written by the same people. People trying to get rich by writing and publishing song. Beginning to see that everything we need for a music industry is in place. Demand for newly composed songs leads to the increased organization of the music industry. But you still couldn‟t get rich of music. Tin Pan Alley 1892, Charles K Harris, After the Ball, it‟s a Parlour song, guy in love, leaves girl for a minute goes onto the balcony, then sees her on the balcony with another man, kissed him, only finds out later that it was her brother.  Became the song that every one had to own, Sold 5 million copies in a few months. Made Harris a very wealthy man. Done through word of mouth, no radio. Becomes the first hit song, changes everything, know that is it possible that you can write a song and if people go crazy for it can be set for life, beginning of modern music industry.  Why 1892? Huge rural to urban shift in 1790 only 5% of population live in urban areas, 4 million, by 1890 35% in Urban areas, 63 million. By 1892 there was a critical mass of urban centres who were willing to buy sheet music What was Tin Pan Alley?  A way to create songs, an approach to melody, a place in N.Y. city where people of the music industry came together, etc. th th th  Place in NYC (West 28 street between 5 and 6 Avenue)  Becomes he center of professional music making  During 20‟s and 30‟s 21000 publishers, 36000 composers  2 stories about the name tin pan alley, popular story - all the windows open all the pianos out of tune, sounds like cats hitting tin pans. Less popular story, more likely – gold rush would use tin pan with a sieve to find gold, thousands would go only a few would make it big, that‟s what they were doing.  Division of labour: composer, lyricists, publisher, publicity, performers, creates consistency and equality, and if anything goes wrong you know exactly who to fire. Essentially an assembly line. Standardizes music. The songs have a great deal in common, this is the pop music of the first part of the 20 thcentury  Lyrics o basic rhythm scheme o Syllabic o Idealized romance – beginning and ending, not trying to change the world, the insane parts of love  Music o Easy to play – still not selling records, but sheet music o Easy to sing – phrasing and range o AABA musical form Music industry established in first decades of 20thc – tin pan alley – northern, urban, white, middle class, based on commodity of sheet music Changes in Technology 1877 – Edison invents the phonograph, was not intended for music, but for business, he had no interest in the arts. The idea was though that it could be used for music, but the quality was poor, and would only last for a few plays. Before anyone would take it seriously for music work had to be done on it. 1892-1912 – transition from cylinders to disks, sounded a lot better and lasted a lot longer, different companies had different speeds, couldn‟t use music from different makers on a different phonograph 1925 – industry standardizes speed set to 75 r.p.m. – people now start buying recorded music. In the past the music you listed to was either produced by you or someone immediately close to you, now could listen to music from anywhere. This is a remarkable change in how we listen to music, use music, etc. The music industry now exists! 1876 – The Player Piano – a piano with a wind up devise that would play the piano if you fed through a sheet of paper with wholes in it that indicated what notes would be played and how long they would be played for. Both phonograph and Player piano were very popular. Mechanical reproduction. Disadvantage - Player Piano, cost a lot, you only get piano sound, Phonograph had poor sound quality, disks very fragile. Advantage – phonograph, could listen to anything, any time of instrument, player piano, very good sound quality. Both were an opportunity to make money, Player Piano‟s peek around 1920 and then disappear. People started using them in there stores, not by live musicians but by a machine, this is a problem. When a music is playing a song, you have to buy he music, composer gets royalties. When someone buys the records then you don‟t get records. They were initially intended to go home and listen to privately. But in a public place getting money using your music. 1914 – Victor Herbert, sitting in restaurant, hears his song, realized he isn‟t getting paid. Realizes people should be getting paid for mechanically recorded music and royalties need to be collected comes up with American Society of Composers, Artists and Publishers (ASCAP). Probably the largest performance royalties company in the world. What was recorded?  Sheet music/ Tin Pan Alley (urban, white, middle class)  Black Music/ rural southern white music not recorded. There music doesn‟t come out in sheet music form so it‟s not recorded o Rural areas o Cultural chauvinism - Believed this music was not important and that there was no point, who is going to but it, it‟s less valuable, not very good. Nothing in it for them Commercial Radio  Radio programming that makes money from airing commercials  Started in 1920, but by Jan. 1922 – 28 stations, by December 1922 – 570 station  Player pianos disappear because of this  Controlled by only a few networks (CBS, NBC, Mutual), already active in new technology, picked up contracts as the came out  Very few independent radio stations exist, most run through NYC Success of Radio  Television of time, have vaudeville, children‟s shows, etc.  Expensive one-time purchase, unlimited content, can keep listening, always new content, kills the player piano and nearly kills record industry  Why buy records? o People stop buying Record industry concerned - needs to rind new markers  Artist and Repertoire guys o Ralph Peer – Okeh Records, in 1920 wants to record a new song he just found “Crazy Blues” (is a TPA song not blues)the singer backs out at the last minute, band member says he knows a girl who would be awesome, says bring her in, he does, the girl walks in and she is black, Mamie Smith, Ralph says what the hell, and does it. First hit record sung by a black artist.  The radio would not play records had to be live, concerned what would be said. Had to come up with something. Ralph was one of the most open mind of his era, realizes can‟t beat them by doing what they are doing, can‟t play TPA, better and cheaper, we have to change, realizes it‟s not what radio plays, but what it doesn‟t, no focus on black and southern music, have to focus on that. Had success with Mamie, realized maybe there is enough of a market in that industry to stay a float and produce something that radios don‟t play.  Introduction of “Hillbilly” (southern rural white) Carve that possum 1927  Introduction of “Race” (black) How Long Blues 1927 No recording of blues until we get into 1920‟s, this is why, will result in Rhythm and Blues, Country Western, while you may intend for one artist find their way into the home of other listeners. 9/12/2012 3:37:00 PM Barndance, i.e. the Grande Ole Opry, so important to Country/Western music that Nashville become center for this type of music. Majority still went to TPA and that was where most of the radio focused Hillbilly Music – Carve that Possum, 1927, Uncle Dave Macon, people who make a living out of folk music, don‟t think about making themselves unique  Has an odd time signature, been rehearsed, has background vocals Race Music – How Long Blues, 1927, Carr and Blackwell, very successful duo in the 1920‟s and 30‟s, Carr singing and playing piano, Blackwell playing guitar  not actually a 12 bar blues, is an esthetic, a way to play instrument, it is a blues style performance  not actually country blues, was considered a next step because it was an urban style, some of the first country music developed after country musicians come to the city for the first time. Change of instrument focus, not guitar, but piano, considered an urban instrument, can‟t carry one around, have 2 musicians, more musicians taking part means more rehearsal. The acoustic guitar was soloing all the way through the song, beginning need for electric guitar so he can be heard, don‟t just want to play chords anymore need to be amplified to be heard 1930-1939: ASCAP repeatedly raises its licensing fee for radio 1940: ASCAP doubles fee  no one would wanted to pay anymore, ASCAP says fine you can‟t play any music we license, means no TPA, now a lot of open space on the radio, now start playing Race and Hillbilly, January 1 st1940 = race and hillbilly all the time.  Formed out Performing rights organization, BMI, Broadcast Musical Incorporated, paid fees to the musicians whose music was being broadcast, not as much, but still something  The ASCAP boycott did not last long by the end of the year TPA returned to its place, but not all the way as a door had been opened just a little, it was being heard and change was starting, not everyone wanted to hear TPA, making an effort to find and year the other music, White Middle Class Television: First demonstration in 1927, no one considered it as a mass media device, but for educational purposes. By 1935 first station was on the air, programming all live, may only be on the air for 4-6 hours a day. WW2 breaks out and puts a hold on everything for 7 years, by 1945-6 stations on the air by 1955 there were 41 stations. Radio sells the mass to networks, we are what mass media sells. Now can not only tell people about shows, but show people, when you purchase the product you will be this happy, way better then the radio was, now everyone starts moving to t.v., no one care about the radio, by the late 1940‟s a lot of the radio licensing‟s that had belonged to huge networks and are up for more local people to buy, a lot more of the program would be generated locally. WDIA, radio station in Memphis, purchased by 2 pharmacists in town, expect it to work the same way as it had before, come in and make advertisement, no one came in, when owned by network, national sponsors. Realize most people are black and they are playing TPA so the switch to Race music, it became the first black appeal radio station in 1948, listening numbers going through the roof, advertising pick up. Within 6 years (by 1954) 200 BA radio stations on the air. Start getting radio stations focusing in Hillbilly music. In 1949, Billboard Magazine (more for industry purposed, come up with popularity charts, had been tracking race and hillbilly music for some time) looked at how popular this music was coming, realized these terms needed to be changed, insulting to the people who listen to it, Race music became known as rhythm „n‟ blues and hillbilly music became country and western. Radio is a media of BROAD cast, it goes everywhere, can tune in whether or not you are the intended audience or not. For the most part it was the intended market, but there were some people who were outside of that market, especially young people. Elvis Presley was one of those people, this is where he starts to form. Extended adolescence, before WW2 there was no such thing as a teenager. Previously between 10-13 years old something happened to make you an adult, many cultures still like that in the world. But most of the Western World changed after WW2, U.S. entered in 1941 after Japan‟s attack on Pearl Harbour, with the exception of that one day not a single shot was fired in anger on U.S. soil. There are parts of Europe where everything is totally destroyed. U.S. had become and industrial superpower, factories, rail lines ports, roads. Everyone comes home from the war, to a nation where there were jobs for everyone, changed the factories over to be appropriate for the world they now lived in, easy to switch a factory that made bombs to one that made radios and t.v.‟s , everyone worked so everyone could buy. Nuclear family – dad can go out and work and the women could stay home with the children. Didn‟t have to worry about not having enough money, baby boom because they could. And when they turned 12, the flip didn‟t switch, but could stay in school and get an education, do what you want, because dad can afford it because of the post war ideology. Could still go out and get a part time job, school was still main job, and the money that was earned you got to keep, didn‟t have to give it to the family, you became a new market, a leisure demographic, had money and could spend it on whatever you wanted. Transistor Radio - a smaller radio, could actually carry it around, in the past radio listening was something you did in a group, but with this you could do what you wanted and no would know. Take it in the car. A new culture that defines you, creates a gap in the taste of grownups and their children. Gospel: Ray Charles (Robinson) 1930-2004  born in Albany Georgia, blind at age 7, not good, poor, blind African American  Got a lucky break, went to a blind school and the teacher realized how talented he was, could pick up any instrument and learn it quickly, can learn a song after hearing it once  Decides to start a music career and joined Atlantic Records in 1952, only record company that had any real clout that would take black musicians, when he signed to them he started playing the music that became known as gospel  Gospel is a sacred music that was sung by African American church after the Civil war, this is not that, takes performance style of that music, the sound, but takes the sacred elements out and replace it with secular.  I Got a Woman – 1953-54  In post war era TPA term is no longer used, pop, music is getting safer, at the same time this song was out, the pop music equivalent was How Much is that Doggy in the Window, people are tuning to Ray Charles Chicago Electric Blues: New form of Blues come out of Chicago Muddy Water 1913-1983  Born in Mississippi  Played guitar and harmonica  emulated Robert Johnson  moves to Chicago, early 1940s  Switches to electric guitar in 1945, had tried to remain on acoustic for a while, but the city is much louder, have drummers playing along, bass players, acoustic doesn‟t cut it anymore. Electric guitar is the whole system, not just the guitar, but the amplifier is just as important as the guitar itself, can also change the tone, distort the sound, can make it edgier, in black culture is very desirable.  1946, records for Aristocrat Records, would later become Chess Records (very important for the development of blues music) Hoochie Coochie Man, written by Willie Dixon, 1954, very important to electric blues, as a writer and producer.  Verse chorus (modifies 12-bar blues)  Stop Time Verse: same music, different words Chorus: same music, same words, may include the song title, may feature a heightened level of intensity. Popularity with white teenagers leads to moral panic, a lot of white middle class teenagers tuning in, children need to be protected, know they are tuning in because of the popularity charts, this is a problem, the world is changing, African Americans tired of hearing they are equal, yet in reality not, still segregated, and after waiting for almost a century to be allowed to access what the law said was already there they started demanding equal rights, resulted in the Civil Rights Movement. Happened when BA radio station became popular. The north ok with this, but there were still a lot of middle class white people saying this is bad, don‟t want change. Moral Panic – many middle class whites saw a world where they had grown up believing that despite what we say that everyone else is equal, they are not. Cover Versions: 1954-1956, rerecording a song that was written or performed years ago, are not trying to compete with the original song, talking about a period where for 2 years the record companies were responding to a moral panic, songs that originally appeared on the rhythm and blues chart is now appearing on the pop chart, cross over, because white kids were going out and buying it after hearing it on BA radio. A week or two after the song came out by the black artist it would them come out by a white artist. Completely legal, anyone can go a record a song that was previously written and try and sell it, can‟t claim that you wrote it, have to send a percentage of the money to composer or composers estate, can‟t change the song in any significant way, anything that devalues the copyright. Cover Versions: “Sh-Boom”  original came out in 1952, written and performed by a group called The Chords, crossed over very quickly, signed to a minor label, Cat Records  a couple of weeks later a white version came out by a Canadian group called The Crew Cuts, signed to a major label, Mercury Records Chords Version June 1954 Intro A Interlude A B A Interlude Solo (A) A A out 4 8 4 8 8 8 8 16 8 8  AABA form Crew Cuts July 1954 Intro A A B A Sh-bm (A) Sh-bm (A) B A Interlude A Tag 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 8 8  Get AABA form twice, very clear cut, not obscured with other sections, very reassuring sound, Sh-bm section replaces sax solo Shows difference in perceived values. A lot of people afraid Chords Crew Cuts Form 1 x through AABA with interludes 2 x s though AABA clearly stated Voice Distorted – use of lower octave in B Clean, no use of lower octaves Backbeat Prominent Minimized – stressed beats 1 & 3 Solo Sax – distorted timbre, sexual No solo – repeats of “sh-boom” group metaphor vocal Won‟t let the Chords near your daughter, much closer, deep voice, unsafe, can hear the physical proximity, less sexually threatening The use of timpani in the Crew Cuts version is genius, used in orchestra, playing a gesture from a children‟s cartoon The Chords: #3 R&B charts, reached #5 on pop chart Crew Cut: no R&B, #1 on pop chart, stayed there for 9 weeks, most popular song of the summer. Record companies didn‟t care about black and white but green, and only until 1956, because by then a whole new generation of musicians were performing in the style of west African culture, rock „n‟ roll Pop Music Lecture 5 9/12/2012 3:37:00 PM Brett‟s Email: [email protected], Tuesday and Wednesday 5:30-6:30 Readings Chapter 3-4 New music targeted at kids being attacked, map of cultural values can be seen through music Not a racist practice by music industry, it was who could make the most money, played into racist feelings, the same this is happening in country and western music as happened wit the pop the way R and B did. Jimmy Rodgers one of the biggest cross over artists, did the same thing to white artists here, in this case it was a class division, this C and W was for low class Pop for middle. Focus no on the artist, but on the song, people went out a bought the song they liked but not the artist. Singers didn‟t write songs yet, still TPA practice, 54-56, point where we see R and B and C and W cross over, cover versions took out elements that made it specific to original genre and make them white. By 56 distinction of low and middle class pop music disappears. By 56 a new style emerging, C and W and R and B and pop mashed together to create new sound, being performed by white and black artists. The old genre title simply didn‟t fit, none of these style, One other element that is new, songs were targeted at adult audiences in the past, but now it will be focused on middle class teenager, a new niche market. Rock „n‟ Roll – Alan Freed, a disc jockey who was very important to this genre  Not the first time term used, had been used as a term for partying, Bill Haley  Born in 1925  Originally “Billy and the Saddlemen” – had originally played western swing. Was one of the first to catch onto new music style  Changed to “Billy Haley in the Comets” 1952, started covering R and B songs, covers of songs from a few years previous  Early Hits with “Crazy Man, Crazy” and “Shake, Rattle and Roll.” Rock Around the Clock (1954)  Becomes popular in 1955  How do we know its R and B o Prominent drums o Improvised solos o Division of labour o Electric guitar, very prominent o 12 Bar blues is the typical chord pattern, no AABA  “Blackboard Jungle” stars Sydney Poitie, about an inner city high school which was over run by juvenile delinquents, mixed race, the thing that united them was there listening to rock „n‟ roll. Smash classical music records. This song started the film.  This song was the peak of his career, not incredibly successful. By 1956 a new group of Rock „n‟ Roll musicians come around, he was nearly 30 though, by targeting teenagers, they were more drawn to artists more similar in age. National Success was coming to a younger generation. Elvis Presley (1935-1977) Tupolo, Mississippi, across from Memphis, born of twins, but brother died. From lower economic class, but parents worked, got along and were loving caring parents, not dirt poor as some believe. Poverty brought people together, it didn‟t matter if you were black or white, had both friends, went to both types of churches, listened to every type of music. Was very busy, with music, auditioning, when he graduated high school got a job driving trucks. Sam Phillips/ Sun Records (a white singer who could reproduce the sound a black singer could produce)– 1958, 18 years old, walks into Sun Records, wants to record a record for his mothers birthday. Marion says to Sam that se thinks she found the person, looses number, comes back to months later to record for mom‟s bday, says yeah he‟s alright Spring 1954 – Records with Scotty Moore (Guitar) and Bill Black (Bass), Sam doesn‟t hire a drummer because he is white, figures her will be playing C and W, wasn‟t working as they start recording, on break starts playing Blue Moon of Kentucky, had been a C and W will in 1947 by Bill Monroe, ¾ time, this is a country Waltz, Elvis, 10 years later, changes the song, sounded more R and B, Sam sends Scotty and Bill back in to work on it, the moment that changed everything, as the end, says that a pop song just about, important because Elvis is changing the song, it is now in 4/4 time, songs were not in ¾ on the pop chart generally, Lyrics remain the same at this point. A couple of days later they released another version, a totally different song, improvised electric guitar solo, percussion is kind of in this version, not a drummer, but uses the double bass, strings slapping back against the fingerboard. Changes the words, not singing all the words, deliberately changed, huge st contract between 1 section and then the contrasting section. Beginning is totally new. Extra syllables added, called vocables, purpose is to allow singers to sing more like drummers. Words don‟t matter anymore, the sound itself expresses the feeling of the song. What Elvis did through this piece was taking a song and fused it with R and B elements, but it is not R and B and not C and W and it created something new. Proceeded to do this with more music in both directions, once the record was finished Sam sent it to a friend of his Dewey Phillips, Had a radio show, Red, Hot and Blue show, first person to play Elvis, played the same record 20 times that night, the next day Elvis went into the radio show and was interviewed on the air, First question was “Where did you go to high school?” Why would he do this? Wanted to let listeners know if he went to a white or black high school, this way people would know his race. People couldn‟t tell his race, people were confused, because that Is how new this sound was, how linked they were to the sound. This launches his career, for the next 18 months Elvis records for Sam Phillips at Sun records, recorded 12 songs, did not record albums, recorded 6 singles, all of the songs were covers, he never wrote a song, all artists he respects from years previous. Had a cover of R and B on one side a C and W on the other. Had been fused with elements of the one that they were not. Became known as Rockabilly. One of his nickname was “The Hillbilly Cat” Doing well but not yet the Elvis that we think of, was a regional star, very famous in Memphis, and known in the cities around it. Having hits on regional charts. As 195 comes to a close starts to have national hits, clear he is about to become a national stars. Sam Phillips dumps Elvis as fast as possible, at this point in time the worst thing that can happen to an independent label is a national hit, don‟t have the money to be able to create and distribute singles. Would result in bankruptcy. Sells contract to RCA, first major record label to sign a Rock „n‟ Roll Star, gets $35 000 for Elvis, was able to launch careers for people like Jerry Lee Lewis (Godness Gracious Great Balls of Fire), Carl Perkins (Blue Suede Shoes), Johnny Cash, etc. 1956 – New manager for Elvis was Colonel Tom Parker, gifted promoter, could sell anything, turned Elvis into a major star through media, got him on National television 11 times in one year. Only 3 channels at that time, meant 20-30 million viewers. Everyone knows who he is. Most famous popular musician in history. Heartbreak Hotel – April-May 1956 first #1 pop/country/ #5 R and B August to December 1956 – Hound Dog, Don‟t Be Cruel, Love me Tender #1 pop, Hound Dg is the first song to hit #1 on all three chards simultaneously, is at number one the entire time, never knocked down, everyone is listening. Great deal of controversy, still in midst of moral conflict A few months after first national performance Texaco Star Theatre, Milton Burl was host, suggested that Elvis put down the guitar, has a drummer, D.J Fontana, playing Hound Dog, get to end of song, sings much slower, sexually charged performance, all hell broke loose, people protesting PTA upset churches furious, should never be allowed to be on national television again. 2 Weeks later Elvis went on the Steve Allen Show, another prime time show, a performance designed to try and calm the moral panic, Young white teenagers loosing control on television. Had to purify image, no gyrating. Original version of Hound Dog released in 1954 by R and B artist Willie Mae Thornton. 1956-57 Elvis is a phenomenon, becomes so obsessed by new sound that he looses R and B hits, Colonel Tom is controlling everything he does, wants to maximize Elvis‟ earning potential, by 1958 he is very focused and controlled by those around him in 1958 he enters the American Army, serves 2 years, it was mandatory service. Didn‟t fight, spent 2 years in Germany, Cold war had started. After WW2 Soviets in from East A, B and F from west, looked at each other and said who will leave. both sides worried that the other was going to vacuum up Europe, built huge army waiting for WW3 to break out, sit their and wait, it didn‟t. Came back in March of 1960, The world is very different and so is Elvis. Plays a few concert between 1960 and 1961. March 1961 plays last public performance until end of the 1960‟s. Colonel Tom realizes e can only make so much money with Elvis if he stays in music, puts him in movies. Focus on gospel music because Colonel believes he can get forgiveness for what happened in the 1950‟s, it worked, but you can tell he is not happy. In 1968 filmed 4 hours of television, for an hour special, the 68 “Comeback Special”, can still tell he is not really into it, but there is a moment when he comes out in a black leather suit, comes out with Scotty and D.J. Fontana played a box, and a new bass player, the one moment you see that guy again. Having fun. Didn‟t work though, got an offer to do a bunch of shows in Las Vegas. 1970-77, never leaves. Became more withdrawn, unstable. Loaded up on prescription drugs, forgets words, laughs in the middle of songs, slurred speech, etc. th August 16 1977 he died, was 42 years old. The King died. If it weren‟t Elvis it would have been someone else. There were others who were very successful. Chuck Berry – the black man who sounded like a white man Guitar Hero – Guitar is as important as vocal – no covers Elvis was a guitar wearer, Chuck Berry is a guitar player, it was part of him. Is the definitive player in what the new style of rock „n‟ roll. No one tries to do covers of his music. Can‟t remove the guitar, it would fall apart. First hit in 1955 in height of cover phenomenon Born in St. Louis, born to a middle class family, father is a handy man. Decides at an early age to be a millionaire. Everything is done with this in mind. Decides to be a musician, realized that as and R and B stay he won‟t be rich, he needs middle class white people to listen to him. Sets off to get this audience, goes along with his father, looks at record collections, wants to know what African American artists are liked by middle class white audience, what do they like. WORDS! Want to be able to hear what you are saying. Joined talent shows, won them all, he stood out, all his competitors were playing R and B, but he was C and W, sings words harsh with a strong nasal qualities. Tries recordings but doesn‟t really get anywhere, ends up at Chess Records. Want him to do R and B, same thing that happened to Elvis happened to Him, started playing a C and W song on break “Ida Red” say lets go in there and record it. Chess brothers say you only make half the cash, you didn‟t write it, write new lyrics. Writes them in the studio there, changed name to “Maballene” July 1955. First hit song, had lots of words, is a text heavy narrative, Lots of words and tells a story. Launches into new style that Elvis is making popular, see a lot of the themes that will become central in his own music and rock musicians for the next 3 decades.  Cars – represent freedom  Girls – becomes more prominent, girls as objects, things to be acquired and displayed. Still limited options for women in music. Split between mind and body. Singing is body, Guitar is mind. Body is ok for women. Piano, Guitar, but not synthesized instrument. Very small instruments allowed to play.  No School - Freedom  Rock „n‟ Roll – celebrating the music itself Berry is deliberately writing for young white audience. No covers – Why?  The words, lots of them  Guitar  Already appealing to white audience because of the words, no one needs to cover, no one will buy covers, already buying his Johnny B. Goode (1958) #2 R and B/ #8 pop  Fuses elements of both white and black culture  Does it deliberately. Pop Music Lecture 6 9/12/2012 3:37:00 PM Blue Moon of Kentucky – Elvis‟s is faster, style of voice different, change in melody (Elvis is standardized), lyrics change, now aimed for younger audience Hound Dog, Elvis loved it, wouldn‟t be allowed to sing it though because of lyrics, heard his lyrics in Las Vegas and realized could do those. All the changed were made on purpose to fit pop audience Chuck Berry Flip side of Elvis Made a conscious effort to pay attention to what a white audience wants and learning how to perform that way, wanted to be rich Whites already liked what he was doing so no one felt a need to cover him Johnny B. Goode (1958) #2 R & B / #8 Pop New he needed to reach pop world for money and #8 on the pop chart is worth more then a #2 on R & B  12 Bar Blues with a “text heavy” narrative  Close to New Orleans, lives in a log cabin made from earth and wood, not so good in school except for music. This is the first verse, Hound Dog tells us nothing about the song. Has “Text Heavy” narrative. Berry had figured out that White people like words.  White Elements: o Text heavy narrative o Clear enunciation o Groove is straight 8ths o Swung 8ths = Gaped triplet, all R & B uses gapped triplets Willies Mae‟s Hound Dog o Straight 8ths more common in white culture o Country Guitar Sound – Bright sound (not the typical lower bass sound) nasally sound, doesn‟t signify R & B with this sound  Black Elements: o Blues Chord Structure o Added 6th (boogie woogie – related to R & B attitude, but played on piano not guitar, Robert Johnson did this) Uses this pattern to accompany himself, but uses straight 8ths, standard Rock and Roll accompany pattern to this day o Call and response between voice and guitar o Guitar solo is structured on timbre and rhythm, not the notes that he is planning but the way he playing. Play same note on different strings, the shorter an thicker the strings get though the less bright they sound, Berry uses this to his advantage, uses the different strings to make the brighter sound more obvious, also warps the sound by bending on of the strings into it. Sound sense not note sense  Combines all of these elements, the way Elvis did but did it deliberately Chuck Berry was more influential then Elvis, Elvis never wrote his own music, did all covers, guitar disposal, not a necessary part of his persona, and acoustic only rock and roll artist signed to a major record label, this is because he still fit the division of labour process, he was a voice and a face. Chuck Berry was not okay with this, he played electric guitar, important to R & B, wrote own music, this is why no R & B artists got signed. A new wave is coming though, where people play instruments, the Beatles, Rolling Stones, these people when looking at Rock and Roll don‟t relate to Elvis, because he doesn‟t write his own music but Chuck Berry. The idea of self contained bands that write own songs and play own instruments will become popular. Berry will be the model of the music industry until Hip Hop, without him you don‟t get the Beatles, and eventually Rock. Could move around while you played with electric guitars. The Golden Age of Rock and Roll: This time period, 1954 (55)- 1958 (59), new sound emerges aimed at teenagers, by 59 it was over, like they went extinct…. The Great Extinction:  Elvis – March 58 – Army, never again a character of innovation, rest of career is safe.  Chuck Berry – driven by money, Chuck Berry‟s favourite Chuck Berry song was My Ding A Ling, made him the most money, invest his money, by the late 50‟s he owned a string of night clubs. Had a family friend asked about a family friend of his, asked is there something in one of these clubs that this girl could do, drive her over the river to club to be coat check girl, gets pulled over, girl was 14 and white, first red flag, bridge was also a state line, Mann Act, written in 1800‟s, designed to protect white women from being brought over state line to be sold into prostitution. Charged, appealed, but had to go to prison, 2 years. Never again truly famous  Jerry Lee Lewis – May 58 – Marriage to 13 year old cousin becomes public, Goodness Gracious Great Balls of Fire most famous song. On tour when it became public, worse because he wasn‟t out of divorce from his wife. Judged on a different standard, from small southern rural community, was common, common around most of the world. Everything pulled, tour cancelled, could never again be an innovator  Little Richard – October 57 – Tuity Fruity is most famous song, Quits Rock „n‟ Roll and enters Bible College, thought he was doing Satan‟s work by playing Rock „n‟ Roll, also Bi sexual, continually plagues by his two passions, constantly going back an forth between the church and rock „n‟ roll, never had that sane level of impact  Buddy Holly – solid bodies electric guitar, Peggy Sue is most famous song, major force in song, on tour February 59 and gets a chance to fly to the next gig, pilot, Big Bopper, Ritchie Valans and Himself, plane crashes, every one dies, becomes known as the day the music died  Created a space, almost a vacuum, industry having trouble, need a chance to get back in the game and this gave them the chance. The In Between Years (1959-1963) The end of the “Golden Age” of Rock and Roll, to the arrival of the Beatles (February, 1964). In Between suggests we are in a holding pattern but not the case Characterized by:  The return of Tin-Pan-Alley based musical production, How to make Rock and Roll in the system of division of labour  Changes in technology – go back to WW2, but we will now see them come into effect Reaction against the perceived integration of youth – pulled the race card to a degree, morals, ideas that had been stuck in the closet, rock and roll dangerous, experts making extraordinary claims, about rock and roll being linked to juvenile delinquency, lead to cannibalism, connections with Satanism, communist plot meant to undermine the American youth, European countries (Russia) say it was America doing this, worst was that is lead to integration. Have figured out how to produce rock and roll, but we need to figure out how to make people buy theirs over what is already out there Birth of Rock and Roll coincides with the emergence of the Civil Rights Movement  May 1954. Brown vs. Board of Education, most cited and best Supreme Court decision. African American student tired of separate but equal education, not the same though, White schools had better buildings, newer text books, better teachers, had opportunity. Some students took educators to board, demanding that racially divided school to be eliminated. Supreme Court agreed to dissolve them. Did not happen easily, in some states the Governor called the national guard and blocked the entrance of the school to stop the black students from entering, Federal government calls in army to stream them in, these were kids with hundreds of adults screaming at them, just children, going to school with soldiers everywhere  December 1955, Rosa Parks – Montgomery Bus Boycott, sits at the front of the bus, illegal in Alabama, if you were black you sat at the back, there was a line and a sign, she went and sat down in her half of the bus, there was a white passenger, no seats left at the front, demands she leaves her seat, despite the fact that there was an empty seat, she says no, starts screaming at her, she says no I am behind the sign, bus driver comes back, starts screaming at her, takes sign and moves it behind her, says move now, she says no, gets arrested. The entire black community said they would not ride the bus until the signs to be taken down and she was released of all charges, it took a year, but people would not budge and the bus company, in part because of the embarrassment this was causing, but also because they realized how much revenue was from them and they decided to take down the signs. Rosa Parks lived long enough to see Barack Obama elected, a courted a great honour, body was laid in state for a day after death, only done for presidents. Rosa was one of a group of people who were looking for an opportunity to do something, seized the moment when it came. That group was lead by her pastor, a young man with extraordinary ideals, Martin Luther King Jr. She was well respected and needed a moment that would seize the attention of others.  A flood of civil right protests takes place, starts with black, but others join in.  Freedom Riders – illegal for people of different race to sit beside each other when crossing a state line, a group of whites and a group of blacks would do this at any chance they could. In one case, a group blocked a state line, pulled them off the bus and beat them, the police did it  Lunch Counter Sit Ins – there were lunch counters in the department store, whites only, black kids would go and sit ask to be served, said no, would just sit there all day, do homework etc. did it day after day until the embarrassment resulted in change, happened in movie theatres, with drinking fountains, non violent protests.  Martin Luther King Jr. – Non Violent Protest  Was in the middle of the Golden Age of Rock and Roll, they came hand in hand Major labels attempt to reassert control over popular music Put music back into the hand of the professionals (ASCAP) 1954 $200 Million/year, 1959 $600 million: Pop Top 10: 1955 – 15% Rock and Roll, 1959 – 42% are Rock and Rill Independent share: 1955 21%, 1959 66% The industry is becoming worth a lot, but the majors don‟t get rock and roll as they want division of labour, Attacked it Attacked on the grounds of “good music” Payola Hearing (bribery) – Say that the only reason rock and roll on the radio is because they were bribing radio stations. Alan Freed became main target of the hearing. Government hearings occurred, senators getting involved. Alan Freed accused of taking bribes, the problem was that he was taking bribes. Every one was and it didn‟t start with rock and roll, but with the music industry, since TPA. Bribery and intimidation has been going on as long as there was a music industry yet this was the way to get rock and roll out. Alan Freed played the independents, no covers, lost job, chased out of New York, hounded by government, by 1962 that he became chronically ill and died in 1963, because he supported rock and roll. Major Labels now creating there own brand of Rock and Roll, no matter how dirty they were they were given a pat on the back. Dick Clark (American Bandstand) – inherited it, essentially a show where they played music and you watched teenagers dancing, very popular  By 1957, weekly audience of 20 million  Played records and kids danced, usually white kids, occasionally black kids at the back, Ideal clothes, loose skirts, collared shirts, slacks, etc. Would dance, modestly, then Dick Clark would come and interview them, where they give the ideal answer, the point was that there were kids dancing to rock and roll and the weren‟t bad, they were dressed appropriately and answering questions to fit the social norms, therefore rock and roll is safe But there was a catch, as we move into the in between years, the rock and roll they are listening to are not from the independent labels. Major labels had figured our how to create it in the form of division of labour. Half the audience was adults, showed that it wouldn‟t destroy culture, had to listen to that one. Dances created by major record companies The Dance Craze  Would feature an artist singing a song whose title was the man dance of the song and the song would include instruction on the new move, would tune in to learn these new dance. And at the dance on the weekend you would know the new dance. This was all from the major labels, but not the street  The most famous is “The Twist” by Chubby Checker, received his name from Dick Clark‟s wife, she loved Fats Domino from the Golden Age, Dick Clark owned him. Pop Music Lecture 7 9/12/2012 3:37:00 PM Television to 9 tonight Don‟t worry about 5 guys named Mo?? Beginning of British Invasion, often viewed as a dull or boring period Major Record companies screwed up in the Rock „n‟ Roll era, but the universe interceded and the labels got a chance to get there hand it. ASCAP managed to get government hearings to question how rock „n‟ roll was getting on the air, Payola, bribery was always there but this but a new light on it. Alan Freed, lost everything, brought on criminal charges, tax invasion, made him sick and he died. Dick Clarck, doing even worse thing, but was on T.V., could see that kids were not turning bad, his music was not the product of independent label companies, a new type of rock „n‟ roll, was written by TPA, new era of TPA. Technological Changes: Had exsisted for a while, but took time to figure out how to use Magnetophone: end of WW2 Nazi‟s should not have lost, had the smartest people working for them, created the rocket. May have had nuclear weapons a year before the U.S., but it was designed by Einstein who was Jewish and Hitler said no, etc. etc. etc., Hitler was a control freak and said NO. When the Allied forces were pushing them back found all sorts of cool stuff that they had to abandon, one U.S. groups job to find cool stuff. Jack Mullin, Sergeant in US Army. Goes into radio station and finds a Reel-to-Reel Tape Recorder Allies were trying to murder Hitler but to hard to find him. Would do a radio show, and then be some where else the next day, etc. this was way, was previously recorded and couldn‟t tell, until they found it. U.S. army didn‟t have enough time to research all the stuff they found, government would pay the people who found it to try and figure it out. He realizes that it would be good for music industry. In 1947 demonstrated tape recorder to Bing Crosby. Was a pop star, radio star, etc. Radio shows done live, was a problem for Bing as he was all over the place, so when his radio show was on he had to find a studio to do it live, it was a pain, problems were always arising. Saw the magnetaphone and though in 2 week I can set up an entire seasons shows in 2 weeks, not distorted, reliable, etc. He was the first person to prerecord a network show. No dead air, can edit out what you don‟t want heard. Allowed for stuff like prerecorded laughter. Bing had a musician friend, more of a techy then him, but gave up music because he hated recorded. Gives one to Les Paul (1915-2009). Known as TPA pop star in the 1940‟s and 50‟s, has a TPA show. Invented most of the foot pedals for guitars. Made one that would echo guitar Les Paulverisor. Les Paul and Mary Ford show, all about technology, Mary Ford very talented Guitar Player. Les Paul dappled in Jazz and country music. His real obsession was sound. Guitar, figured out early on that you no longer needed the whole in the guitar if you were amplifying it. Would make sound sustain for longer, in 1941 puts theory to the rest, “The Log” Took a railway tie, through some pick ups on it and a neck, took it to a gig and it worked, looked weird, people were like WHAT, dejected to carved a body and attached it and everyone said OMG that‟s amazing. By end of the decade enters agreement with Gibson guitar company, 1952 Gibson Les Paul. What makes it special? It is a solid body electric guitar, not acoustic in anyway, changed what you can do with a guitar and an amplifier. Jimmy Page (Led Zeppelin), Ace Frely (Kiss), Slash (Guns „n‟ Roses) all use this guitar. Les Paul brings over reel-to reel and realizes it‟s exactly what he is looking for, will allow him to layer parts on top of another, one instrument at a time, new there wouldn‟t be a problem with sound distortion. Took it apart and when it was done he have an early multitrack tape recorder. Make the take wide not skinny, as it travels from one reel to another it is imbedded and if it is bigger then you can add more tracks separately recorded one at a time. Can listed to it after he has recorded and then play another track with it, etc. etc. etc. Allows for editing music, can replace part of one performance in one section from days, weeks or months earlier. Can shape music through technology. Can sped stuff up, slow it down, run it backwards. Makes performances that are humanly impossible to recreate on a concert stage. 1953: Sitting on top of the World (with Mary Ford)  Typical TPA  Only had 2 people recording it.  Had distortion, parts played at a slower speed and then sped up  When did this performance take place? Cannot identify that, occurred
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