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MUSIC 2TT3 Final: BroadwayandPopularSongFinalExamReview

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Lara Housez

Exam Review: Broadway and the Popular Song Winter 2017 People Composers Jerome Kern ● American composer ● Started his career as a rehearsal pianist and ​song-plugger​ working in the sheet music industry ○ Amateur musicians wanted to play popular music at home (Tin Pan Alley: home of the sheet music industry) ○ People like Jerome would try and discover the next bit hit ● By 1927, Kern had already written about 20 scores for Broadway, including many musical comedies (​Oh, Boy!, Leave It To Jane​) ● Kern composed more than 700 songs ● By the time he's working on ​Show Boat​, he was immersed in the world of the musical comedies ○ Guy Boldton and P.G. Wodenhouse worked with Kern multiple times on musical comedies for the Princess theatre. ■ Their repertoire is known as "The Princess Shows" John Kander ● Long term Partnership with Fred Ebb ○ American songwriting team, who wrote more than one dozen musicals over almost 50 years, including Flora, the Red Menace; Cabaret; Chicago ● Kander (top) got his start as a substitute rehearsal pianist for West Side Story ● The work of Kander and Ebb helped propel the careers of Lauren Bacall, Liza Minnelli, Chita Rivera, and Barbra Streisand Stephen Sondheim ● What do we already know about Sondheim? ○ Lyricist to ​West Side Story​ (Bernstein and Laurants) and ​Gypsy​ (Julie Styne; with Ethel Merman as the big star) ○ Saturday Night​ (1954), his first show as both a lyricist and composer... but didn't show up on Broadway for decades because of the death of a producer. (refer to Love Life​ notes) ○ Reluctant to take another lyricist only gig, he wanted to be a composer (as well as a lyricist) ○ Prof is obsessed with him ● At the age of 15, Sondheim wrote his first show, By George! ○ When he was at the George School. ● Born in New York to a very well connected family (in the textiles industry). Came from a broken home, friends with James Hammerstein and thus spent a lot of time with him and his family. ○ He said "He loved Hammerstein so much, that he would have become anything Hammerstein wanted him to be" ○ He wrote a play (​By George​) and had Hammerstein read it, asking him do give him his honest, unbiased opinion. Hammerstein said it was "the worst thing he had ever read.... but had talent". Together, they spent an afternoon working on it. Sondheim said he learned more about music in those 4 hrs than his entire life before. ● Hammerstein was Sondheim’s teacher, mentor, and surrogate father ○ Hammerstein teaches Sondheim ■ Turn a play you admire into a musical: Beggar on Horseback by George S. Kaufman and Marc Connelly (​All That Glitters​) ■ Turned a flawed play into a musical: ​High Tor​ by Maxwell Anderson ■ Adapt a short story or novel (a non-theatrical form) for the musical stage: Mary Poppins​, a series of children’s books by P. L. Travers ■ Write an original musical: ​Climb High ● Sondheim in the 1950s ○ Attended Williams College, MA ■ Went to study math, ended up in music ■ When Sondheim graduated, he received a cash prize ($6000 to be spent over 2 years on something related to the arts) that he used to study music composition with Milton Babbitt (who uses math to compose) ● Babbot's music sounded a different since it did not concentrate on melody ● Closet Musical composer. Trying to adapt the story of Helen of Troy as a vehicle to Mary Martin's career. ● They discussed a bit of Kern, Gershwin, Henderson but spent most of their time studying the baroque period (Beethoven, Mozart) ○ Saturday Night​ (music + lyrics, shelved before reaching Broadway) ○ West Side Story​ (lyrics only) ○ Gypsy​ (lyrics only) ● Sondheim in the 1960s ○ Hammerstein dies ○ Sondheim starts psychoanalysis ○ A Funny Thing Happened on the Wa​y to the Forum (music + lyrics) ■ 949 performances, his longest run ■ Nominated for 8 Tonys but none for his score. This was a huge blow to Sondheim and he viewed it as a failure despite it's commercial success ■ More of a play with music but a musical ○ Anyone Can Whistle​ (music + lyrics) ■ Arthur Laurents ■ Original ■ 3 Acts Musical (challenging because of the 'book ends' these create). ■ 3 Novices as stars ● Angela Lansbury - ​Murder, She Wrote, Sweeny Todd, Gypsy ■ Longest music for the play, eg. "Simple" (13 mins) ■ Only 9p. "Anyone can whistle but no one can sing". Another huge flop ○ Do I Hear a Waltz​? (lyrics only) ■ Collaborates with Richard Rodgers (Hammerstein has passed away) but the two despise one other ■ Laurents is bookwriter ■ Lukewarm success ■ His first Tony nomination for lyrics ○ Evening Primrose​ (music + lyrics, TV musical) ■ Only 4 songs ■ James Goldman. Continue to do a show called ​Follies ○ A Pray by Blecht​ (lyrics only, abandoned) ■ Broadway musical that started with a play by Bertolt Brecht. (avant garde play). Name of the ​The Exeption to the Rule ■ Collaborates old WWS friends with Bernstein, Robbins and John Guare (new bookwriter) ■ Star Zero Mortel,, Stuart Ostrow ■ Sondheim backed out because he felt like they were writing different plays ● Robbins wanted a homage to Brecht ● Bernstein wanted to be that wunderkid and write the next great american opera ● Sondheim and Guare wanted a classic american musical Leonard Bernstein ● American composer, conductor, pianist, educator ● Studied music at Harvard ● First American-born musician to lead a major symphony orchestra, the New York Philharmonic ● Ballets, operas, symphonies, choral works, chamber music, piano pieces ● Musicals include ​On the Town, Wonderful Town,​ and ​West Side Story ● Leonard Bernstein on TV in 1956 ○ “We are in a historical position now similar to that of the popular musical theater in Germany just before Mozart came along. In 1750, the big attraction was what they called the Singspiel, which was the ​Annie Get Your Gun​ of its day, star comic and all. This popular form took the leap to a work of art through the genius of Mozart. After all, ​The Magic Flute​ is a Singspiel; only it’s by Mozart…We are in the same position; all we need is for our Mozart to come along. If and when he does…what we’ll get will be a new form…And this…can happen any second. It’s almost as though it is our moment in history, as if there is a historical necessity that gives us such a wealth of creative talent at this precise time.” ○ At this time, Bernstein was already prominent in Broadway as a conductor. He had been conducting orchestras and composing music for many years. ○ It was interesting that he brought up Mozart, a composer, when musicals are largely collaborative. So bringing Mozart is misleading, and though Bernstein is trying to push himself as the new Mozart (through West Side Story), this production took so many people to bring to the stage. Lloyd Webber ● British composer and theatre owner ● Musicals include: ​Jesus Christ Superstar, Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat, Evita, Cats, Starlight Express, School of Rock,​ and ​Phantom Mark Hollmann ● American songwriting team with Kotis ○ Kotis serves as bookwriter, and Hollmann as composer; both contribute lyrics Jonathan Larson ● American composer-lyricist and playwright ● tick…tick…BOOM!​ (1990, 2001) ● Mentored by Sondheim ○ many of the new generation of composers have had some interaction with Sondheim ○ Sondheim’s “Sunday” is pastiched in Larson’s TTB) ● Larson dies the morning of ​Rent's​ first off Broadway preview Ray Henderson ● Composer of ​Good News​ (1927), a musical comedy ● Studied a lot of the baroque period (Beethoven, Mozart) Lin-Manuel Miranda ● American composer, lyricist, and actor ● Puerto Rican American, grew up in Washington Heights ○ grew up listening to latin, urban and showtime music ○ went to Hunter High School - Selective Arts Program ● Wesleyan University, B.A. (2002) where he founded Freestyle Love Supreme, a rap improv group ● Supply teacher - At his old High School ● MacArthur Fellow (2015) ○ Huge Honour ○ Genius Grants (625 000 over 5 years) ○ Investing in the future (any field) - in the person's mind ● Composer, lyricist, bookwriter, and star of ​Hamilton​ (2015) ● Besides ​Hamilton ○ In the Heights​ (2008) 1184 p. ■ As composer-lyricist and star ○ Bring it On: The Musical​ (2013), 171 p. ■ As co-composer with Tom Kitt and co-lyricist with Amanda Green ○ Contributed new songs to Stephen Schwartz’s ​Working​ and Spanish translations for Broadway revival of ​West Side Story​ (2009) ○ Provided music, lyrics, and vocals to several songs in Disney’s ​Moana​ (2017) ○ Selected acting credits: ​The Sopranos, House, Modern Family​, and upcoming Mary Poppins​ sequel Lyricists Alan Jay Lerner ● Love Life ○ Advocates for the book. Start with it otherwise it is awkwardly trying to follow the score Oscar Hammerstein III ● American lyricist and bookwriter ● Theatre heritage ○ Father was an opera ​impresario​ (producer) ● Dropped out of law school to pursue a career in theatre ● Mentored by lyricist and bookwriter ​Otto Harbach​ (​Desert Song) ● Later collaborated with composer ​Richard Rodgers​ on several wildly successful musicals: Oklahoma!, Carousel, South Pacific, The King and I, The Sound of Music ● OH2 collaborated with composers Romberg, Friml, Kern, and others before he worked with Rodgers on several musicals: ​Oklahoma!, Carousel, Allegro, South Pacific, The King and I, The Sound of Music​, and film and TV musicals ● The Rodgers and Hammerstein musicals have garnered dozens of awards: Pulitzer Prizes, Tonys, Oscars, Emmys, Grammys, etc. ● Creative process: Rodgers added music to Hammerstein’s lyrics (the reverse of how Rodgers had worked with Hart) ● Bookwriter ○ Searching for a way to begin what would become the musical ​Oklahoma!​, Hammerstein turned to Riggs' stage directions for G​reen Grow the Lilacs John Weidman ● American bookwriter and television writer for Sesame Street ● With Sondheim: ​Pacific Overtures​ (1976), ​Assassins ​(1991), ​Road Show ​(2008) Langston Hughes ● American poet, novelist, and playwright ● Known for his portrayals of black life in America in the 1920s through 1960s ● Street Scene Ira Gershwin ● In addition to working with his older brother, George, Ira collaborated with composers Jerome Kern, Kurt Weill, and Harold Arlen ● Porgy and Bess Bookwriters Greg Kotis ● Kotis serves as bookwriter, and Hollmann as composer; both contribute lyrics DuBose Heyward ● American author ● Best known for his novel and play, Porgy ● 1934 edition of Porgy (right) ● Stephen Sondheim on Heyward ○ Porgy and Bess is Sondheim’s favourite piece of American musical theater ○ What Sondheim says about Heyward: ○ - “Heyward has gone largely unrecognized as the author of the finest set of lyrics in the history of the American musical theater—namely those of Porgy and Bess. There are two reasons for this, and they are connected. First, he was primarily a poet and novelist, and his only song lyrics were those that he wrote for Porgy. Second, some of them were written in collaboration with Ira Gershwin, a full-time lyricist, whose reputation in the musical theater was firmly established before the opera was written. But most of the lyrics in Porgy—and all of the distinguished ones—are by Heyward. I admire his theater songs for their deeply felt poetic style and their insight into character. It’s a pity he didn’t write any others. His work is sung, but he is unsung.” ○ - From Invisible Giants: Fifty Americans Who Shaped the Nation But Missed the History Books by Mark C. Carnes, 2003) James Lapine ● American bookwriter, playwright, director, filmmaker, photographer, visual artist ● When they first meet, they spend a lot of time looking at art ● Lapine is a visual artists: photographs, artwork, etc ● With Sondheim: Sunday in the Park with George (1984), Into the Woods (1987), and Passion (1994) Arthur Laurents ● American playwright, bookwriter, screenwriter, director ● Studied at Cornell and NYU ● Musicals include ​West Side Story​ and ​Gypsy ● New to Broadway as well Sources Edna Ferber ● Show Boat: ​best-selling novel from 1926. What was this book like? Why was it an unusual starting point for a musical? ○ usually based on lighter material then, popular culture, light plays, etc. Light-hearted, frivolous ● Very popular writer in the 1920s ● It told the story of ​The Cotton Blossom ● Based on her first hand account on being on these showboats in the south ● This story dealt with difficult issues, unlike other musical comedies of that time Lynn Riggs ● Green Grow the Lilacs (play) ○ Oklahoma! is based on Green Grow the Lilacs, a play by Lynn Riggs (1899-1954), which was first produced by the Theatre Guild (non profit production) in 1931. ■ The original purpose of the group, which wqas active from the 1920s-1970s, was to produce non commercial works by American and Foreign playwrights. They were unique because their board oversaw the choosing of plays *** ○ American poet, playwright, screenwriter, who grew up in Oklahoma ○ He wrote ​Green Grow the Lilacs​ in France on a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1928-29 Charles Gilbert, Jr. ● Developed the idea for ​Assassins George Seurat ● Painted ​Un dimanche après-midi à l’Île de la Grande Jatte​ (1884-86), oil on canvas, Inspiration for ​Sunday in the Park with George ● Neoimpressionist (like Monet). ○ Famous for creating artwork out of dabs of colour. From a distance, blend together and give it a shiny appearances ○ Seurat uses dots of colour. Our eyes would naturally blend the picture together ● They were stuck by the number of figures >50. They decided that someone was missing, which they said was Seurat himself. They based the musical on this. ● “Chromoluminarism” ○ From the words “colour” and “light” ○ Seurat developed a technique that resembled pointillism: rather than mix his paints on a palette, he juxtaposed small dots of pure color on a canvas, which the eye of the viewer combined from a distance ○ “I thought: isn’t this interesting that Seurat had, on his palette, eleven colors and white. And I thought, eleven and one make twelve. And how many notes are there in the scale? Twelve. And I thought, ooh, isn’t that interesting. So I thought I would utilize that in some way, shape, or form. --Sondheim ■ The number 12 makes it in the show in different ways ■ Act one: 11 musical numbers plus the opening prelude ■ 11 orchestral "colours" plus the conductor ■ the play unfolds in 12 settings, many of the Sundays ■ 12 singing characters in the cast George Furth ● Created a series of one act plays in which ​Company​ was based on William Shakespeare ● English Playwright. Wrote ​Romeo and Juliet, ​inspiration for ​West Side Story Producers Cameron Mackintosh ● British entrepreneur behind ​Cats, Les Miz, Phantom,​ and ​Miss Saigon ● The success of these 4 shows made Mackintosh the most powerful theatre producer of the age and a very wealthy man ● Before ​Cats​, Mackintosh had a spotty track record producing revivals of ​Oliver!, My Fair Lady,​ and ​Oklahoma!​ in the UK ● Wanted to make the theatre accessible to the masses ● He makes the shows cultural events ○ the music is released well in advance, so the audience is familiar with the material and tunes. Easier sell ○ "events of a lifetime" ● Sights and stunts ○ Cats ■ The stage revolved and so did a section of theatre seats ■ A huge rubber tire rose like a spaceship to cat heaven ○ Phantom ■ The chandelier came crashing down over the heads of the audience ○ Miss Saigon ■ A helicopter landed and took off ○ Fantastical displays ■ closely related with the branding of the musical Florenz Ziegfeld ● American Broadway impresario ● Most famous for his revues, ​The Ziegfeld Follies ○ type of 'numbers' shows (variety acts) ○ Did one every year from 1907-31 ○ Reflection of New York at the time ○ Concerned with glorifying the American girl ● The biggest force in the creation of this show In the 1927 playbill, the title of the show and the name of the producer, Florenz Ziegfeld, virtually leapt off the page. Notice, too, that the show was billed, as an “All-American Musical Comedy.” ○ way it is billed is important ○ "All American" was a new term Directors Harold Prince ● American director and producer ● Credits include ​West Side Story, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, Fiddler on the Roof, Cabaret, Evita, Phantom of the Opera, Show Boat​ (revival), and many more ● Daring in subject manner. Unconventional approach when it comes to love Elia Kazan ● Love Life​ disappeared from his autobiography Rouben Mamoulian ● Armenian-American theatre and film director ● He had already directed ​Porgy and Bess ​(1935) as well as its source, the play​ Porgy (1927) ● He would later direct for R & H ​Carousel​ (1945) Other Major Players Choreographer: Agnes De Mille ● American dancer and choreographer ● Choreographed 15 musicals, including ​Oklahoma!,​ ​Carousel, Allegro ​(also directed), Brigadoon, 110 in the Shade Set designer: Boris Aronson (1898-1980) (Also ​Love Life​) ● American scenic designer, born in Kiev, in present-day Ukraine ● Won 6 Tony Awards for Best Scenic Design ● Credits include ​Love Life, Fiddler on the Roof, Cabaret, Company, Follies, A Little Night Music,​ and ​Pacific Overtures ○ Last four collaborate with Sondheim Actors Mandy Patinkin ● Sunday in the Park with George Joel Grey ● Caberet​, MC in both the original production and film Ray Middleton ● Love Life​. Name was prominent on the posters Todd Duncan ● Played Curly in ​Oklahoma Shows Show title: Show Boat years of first productions: 27 Dec. 1927-4 May 1929 names of main characters: ● Capt’n Andy ● Parthy Ann Hawks ● Gaylord Ravenal ● Magnolia Hawks ● Steve ● Julie ● Joe (dock worker) ● Queenie (cook) Frank ● Ellie ● Kim (Magnolia and Ravenal's daughter) ● Pete salient characteristics: ● First time taking a serious story and adding song and dance to it ● Very topical issues ● Amazing score, reads like a history of American popular song ● Biggest strength is the book song titles: “Make Believe” ● Format: A, A, Verse, B, A, A' ● Sung by Ravenal and Magnolia ● semi diagetic “Ol’ Man River” ● Format: Verse, A A B A' ● Sung by Joe “Can’t Help Lovin’ Dat Man” ● Format: Verse, A A B A' ● Sung by Julie (and kinda Queenie & Joe) Show title: Oklahoma! years of first productions: 31 March 1943-29 May 1948 names of main characters: ● Curly McLain, a cowboy in love with Laurey ● Laurey Williams, an independent young woman, Aunt Eller’s niece ● Will Parker, a simple young man in love with Ado Annie ● Ado Annie, a flirtatious, gullible young woman ● Aunt Eller, Laurey’s aunt, a respected community leader ● Ali Hakim, a Persian peddlar ● Jud Fry, a hired hand on Aunt Eller’s farm salient characteristics: ● First show to cast exclusively unknown stars ● First Broadway musical to have such a long run (2,212 performances) ● First to demonstrate the principles of integration. ● First musical to experience almost immediate national resonance as an American cultural artifact. ● 2 love triangles (compare and contrast of Jud and Ali... the "other") ● Kick started the Golden Age of Musicals 1. More adventurous in its subject matter 2. More serious in its social commentary 3. “Integrated” 4. Elevation of dance so that it was on par with the music, lyrics, and book 5. Expansion of formal parameters from standard AABA song forms to complex musical scenes song titles: “Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin’” ● Structure: ● Sung by: Curly then Laurey “The Surrey with the Fringe on Top” ● Structure: Verse AABA' Verse AABA underscored dialogue, AABA" ● Sung by: Curly ● Description of surrey, animals, Nature, Space, Extensive use of onomatopoeia “People Will Say We’re In Love” ● Structure: ● Sung by: Curly and Laurey “Lonely Room” ● Structure: ● Sung by: Judd “The Farmer and the Cowman” ● Structure: ● Sung by: Ensemble “Oklahoma!” ● Structure: ● Sung by: Ensemble Show title: Porgy and Bess years of first productions: 10 October 1935-25 January 1936 names of main characters: ● Porgy, a disabled beggar ● Bess, a prostitute ● Crown, a tough stevedore and Bess’s lover ● Sportin’ Life, a dope peddler ● Jake, a fisherman ● Clara, Jake’s wife ● Plus about 12 other named characters salient characteristics: ● Folklore or "Fake-lore" argument: No African Americans involved in the creation ● Disappointing initial run ● Because of Duncan, first integrated store at the Nation Theatre in DC song titles: "Summertime" ● Format: Folklike lullaby and establishing number ● foreshadowing what is to come ● Sad melody, happy lyrics ● Sung: Clara "I Got Plenty o' Nuttin' " ● Banjo tune and musical-comedy style ● comic relief, relieves pressure ● Porgy just describing how he is happy with Bess and their blossoming relationship ● Sung: Porgy "Bess, You Is My Woman Now" ● Operatic-style duet: ● Sung: Porgy and Bess "It Ain't Necessarily So" ● Format: ● Sung: Show title: Street Scene years of first productions: 9 January-17 May 1947 names of main characters: ● Locations: Number 346 ● The Maurrants (Frank (fugitive), Anna, Rose,, and Willie) ● The Kaplans (Abraham, Shirley and Sam) ● The Joneses (George, Emma, Mae, Vincent, and Emma's little dog, Queenie) ● The Florentinos (Lippo and Greta) ● The Olsens (Carl and Olga) ● The Hildebrands (Laura and her children, Jennie, Mary, and Charlie) salient characteristics: ● A american Opera song titles: "Ain't it Awful, The Heat?" ● Format: ● Sung: The Women "Ice Cream Sextet" ● Operatic ensemble. Charm Song ● Sung: Lippo "Wrapped in a Ribbon and Tied In a Bow" ● Sung: Jenny "Lonely House" ● Format and Rhyme scheme ○ Verse (ABCB/CDED) ○ A (FGF) ○ A (HFH) ○ B (CIJI) ○ A' (KHLH) ● Sung: Sam ● Repetitive textual devices. Anaphora. Lyric motive (lonely) Show title: West Side Story years of first productions: Sept. 26, 1957—June 27, 1959 names of main characters: ● Jets (white immigrants) ● Sharks (Puerto Ricans) ● Tony (Jet) ● Maria (Shark) ● Riff (Jet) ● Bernardo (Shark) ● Anita (Shark) ● Chino ● Krupke ● Doc salient characteristics: ● Was originally going to be about a Jewish Juliet and Catholic Romeo. Changed to gangs to reflect the issues at the time song titles: "Prologue" ● Establishing number: Rivalry, dance as a storytelling devices, introduces us to the leaders of the groups "Jet Song" ● Sung: Ensemble piece by the Jets "Dance at the Gym" ● How Tony meets Maria ● Swing to dance between Tony and Mara "Maria" ● I want ballad. A recitative that turns into an aria ● format: A, A, B, A', B, A" ● Sung: Tony "Balcony Scene (Tonight)" ● Balcony Scene - "fated to be mated" ● Sung: Tony and Maria ● Verse, A, A, B, A'(both), A, A, B, A, A "America" ● Sung: Ensemble piece by the Sharks "Tonight (quintet)" ● Arthur Laurents worked with Lin Manuel Miranda (Hamilton) for this version (with permission from Sonhiem). It brings together several of the plot lines and themes from the entire musical. Slightly operatic. "I feel Pretty" ● Sondheim doesn't like the lyrics here, wishes he could have rewritten it because of how complex the rhyming and vocabulary was. Didn't make sense for Maria, a teenager in which English was her second language Show title: Love life years of first productions: 7 October 1948-14 May 1949 names of main characters: ● Sam Cooper ● Susan Cooper, Sam’s wife ● Elizabeth and Johnny, Sam and Susan’s children ● An ensemble of chorus members and vaudeville performers salient characteristics: ● Love Life was billed as a ​vaudeville​. Strange, not only wasn't it classically a vaudeville, these shows just weren't typical at the time. It was not a true vaudeville but a book show with interpolated vaudeville acts (done in front of the curtain during set changes, olios) that comment on the book scenes. ● made for a chopped up feeling of the story ● these acts commented on the book scenes. Similar to a Greek chorus. Sometimes they comment ahead (foreshadows) song titles: “Here I’ll Stay” ● “I Remember It Well” ● Faulty Memory Song “This Is The Life” Show title: Caberet years of first productions: 20 Nov. 1966-6 Sept. 1969 names of main characters: ● Master of Ceremonies (Joel Grey), who presides over a seedy joint called the Kit Kat Klub ● Cliff Bradshaw (Bert Convy), an American writer traveling through Berlin ● Sally traveling (Jill Haworth), headlining singer at the Kit Kat Klub ● Fraulein Schneider (Lotte Lenya), a landlady ● Herr Schultz (Jack Gilford), a fruit store owner salient characteristics: ● Metaphor ○ The life of the cabaret, with its seductiveness, decadence, vulgarity, etc., is a metaphor for 1920s Germany ○ Prince extended this metaphor even further. He saw parallels between the moral and spiritual bankruptcy of the characters in Cabaret and 1960s America. To drive home this connection, set designer Boris Aronson created a large mirror backdrop so that the audience could see themselves as patrons at the Kit Kat Klub (see next slide) ● In 1966, Cabaret introduced new visual and thematic material into the musical theatre vocabulary. What made it so unusual? ○ Use of a frame ○ Serious subject matter ■ Prejudice, abortion ○ Use of music to provide comment and counterpoint ■ not just a medium for the narrative ○ Refusal to use the show as a star vehicle song titles: “ Willkommen” ● Sung by the Emcee ● What is the song type? ● What does this number establish? “If You Could See Her (Through My Eyes)” ● Sung by the Emcee ● Read Act II, sc. 2 with Herr Schutz and Fraulein Schneider, posted on A2L. Then listen to the number. ● Song type? Comment song “Caberet” Show title: Company years of first productions: 26 April 1970-1 Jan. 1972 names of main characters: ● Robert, a 35-year-old bachelor, living in present-day (ca. 1970) Manhattan ● Robert’s circle of friends include 5 couples: ○ Sarah (Glamorous, clever, engaging) and Harry (goofy, need for Sarah is childlike) ○ Susan and Peter (best friend) ○ Jenny (maternal) and David (serious, maintain the status quo) ○ Amy (hurts to much to talk about) and Paul (naive, in love) ○ Joanne (smart, perceptive soft because she's been hurt) and Larry (universally human) ● Robert’s 3 girlfriends: ○ Kathy, Marta, and April ● Negative take on marriage. Sondheim was unattached at this point salient characteristics: ● Features trios (usually Robert and one of the couples, also his three girlfriends) ● Company​ was first called “Threes.” Why is “Company” a better title? ○ Many meanings of 'company' ■ companionship, friends ■ entertaining guests ■ business - fits the setting of Manhattan ■ Theatre: the cast. Notice the credits of the song, eg. Robert and Company ● How did Company depart from conventions? ● No real plot ○ Sondheim: “Up until Company, most musicals, if not all musicals, had plots. Up until Company, I thought that musicals had to have very strong plots. One of the things that fascinated me about the challenge of the show was to see if a musical could be done without one…The problem to find the form for it.” ● No love story ○ no perfect marriage, no perfect girlfriend he ends with ● No villain ● No resolution or happy ending ○ Depends on the production. A good Robert shows a change, at least of character. However it is ambiguous ● Little to no dance ● Cabaret introduced new visual and thematic material into the musical theatre vocabulary. What made it so unusual? ○ Use of a frame ○ Serious subject matter ■ Prejudice, abortion ○ Use of music to provide comment and counterpoint ■ not just a medium for the narrative ○ Refusal to use the show as a star vehicle song titles: “Company” “The Little Things You Do Together” ● Lyric analysis: list song, composite rhyme, epistrophe (opposite of anaphora. Repetition at the end of successive lines), lyric motive “You Could Drive a Person Crazy” ● Pastiche song ● Robert, Jenny and David have smoked pot so are opening up more. Robert has just been asked why he is not married? ○ Andrews Sisters, "Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy” (1941) Sweet hearts for the war, sang for soldiers. This was one of their most popular songs ■ why did Sondheim draw from the Andrew sisters for Robert's girlfriends. His girlfriends are perfect, so something else is stopping Robert from marrying one of
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