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18. Influence of Other 2.docx

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Influence of others 2 Obedience Milgram’s Experiment  Stanley Milgram recruiting subjects for understanding human motivation and obedience to authority o go to a room with a confederate subject o purpose of study is to examine the effect f punishment on learning o you are designated as the Teacher and confederate as the Learner o learner is connected to shock electrodes,  during set-up the Learner mentions that he has a heart condition which raises the Teacher’s concern, but the experimenter assures him that the shocks would do no permanent damage o Teacher is taken to another room with switches (slight shock, moderate shock & danger, severe shock) o Teacher asks learner questions, every incorrect answer give him shock, and gradually give a higher shock o Learner begins to complain as shocks grow more intense o Experimenter keeps saying to continue Milgram’s Result  65% of subjects continued to the end delivering the danger shock  because they were told they continued Important Lessons  strong tendency of obedience to authority, even if this power is limited  the experiment illustrates that you are not always an accurate judge of how you would behave in a given situation  experiment leads to debate regarding ethics in psychological research o most subjects were emotionally devastated by the experience o argues that Milgram’s experiments were unethical o Milgram argues that none of his subjects were emotionally scarred after the experiment o Subjects were fascinated by their willingness to obey authority Manipulations  Explanation for obedience was the inherent prestige with following directions of a faculty member in a prestigious uni o Another study: moved the site to a rundown office  Percentage of subjects that obeyed till the end dropped o Another variation: experimenter had to leave the room and replaced by a graduate student, obedience dropped even more  Explanation for obedience was that subjects continued to obey because they were physically separated from the Learner o Tested different proximities with Teacher & Learner  The physically closer the Teacher and the Learner were made to be, the lower the obedience  Explanation for obedience was the proximity of the Experimenter to the Teacher o When experimenter was out of the room, 25% obeyed (a number cheated giving lower intensity shocks) Obedience in the real world  Hofling & others used real nurses in a hospital to test authority o Man posing as a doctor called a nurse in the middle of the night, explaining he was on his way to give a psychiatric assessment o Asks the nurse to administer a large dose of a fake drug to a confederate patient o By agreeing to administer the drug  the nurse would be violating many rules  Dose was higher than maximum  Medication orders shouldn’t be over the phone  Fake medication was not on the hospitals list of meds  Taking orders from an unfamiliar voice o 95% of nursing students said they wouldn’t o 21 out of 22 nurses obeyed  Tendency to obey can be irresistible under a variety of circumstances  you can never quite know how you would act until you are places in a given situation Cognitive Dissonance Attitudes & Behaviour  you have attitudes and opinions about the world and how to behave in particular situations  when you conform to a group, obey a command, or follow a social convention, you are performing a behavior that is not necessarily in line with your attitudes  Cognitive dissonance: whether your chosen behaviour can effect your attitudes Cognitive Dissonance  Festinger & Carlsmith o Subjects were told that this would be a very exciting experiment, but then are disappointed by performing a boring task for an hour o Later informed that it was an experiment on how expectations influence performance o The next subject was also informed that it will be exciting; the experimenter asks if you will tell the next subject how exciting the experiment was (paid either $1 or 20) o Asked to fill out a questionnaire to get your true opinions of the experiment o The group that was paid $1 to lie rated the experiment higher in enjoyment (high dissonance) than the group paid $20 to lie (low dissonance) o The $1 group actually believed the experiment was boring, but told the subject it was fun, there is an inconsistency between their attitudes and behavior  This inconsistency produces an uncomfortable feeling called Dissonance  To reduce felling, there is an adjustment in attitude to be in line with the active behavior; so subjects change their attitudes to match their behavior Overjustification Effects  $20 group ask themselves why they lied to the next subject, they can simly decide that they did it for the money o they feel no dissonance, there is no conflict between attitudes and behavior  for cognitive dissonance to take place, there must be insufficient justification for a behavior in conflict with the attitude ($1 insufficient justification for lying to people)  if you overjustify behavior with outside motivation (ex. money) attitude change is less likely to take place o messy roommate, large reward if he cleans but still thinks it boring o somehow can convince him to clean as group activity, may ask why he’s performing this behavior  dissonance between original attitude and the active behavior may lead him to change his attitude to be in line with new behavior The Stanford Prison Experiment Zimbardo’s Prison  placed an ad seeking male participants for a psychology experiment lasting 2 weeks (basement of Psychology Department in St
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