Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures)
Acquisition- the process by which the frequency of a response is
raised from its initial level to some final, steady rate
Attribution- judgments tying together causes with effects
Encoding Specificity- the finding that recall is better when
retrieval takes place in similar conditions to encoding illustrating
that our memory is affected by out internal and external
Fluency- the ease with which an experiment is processed
Forgetting Curve- a curve describing the amount of information
lost from memory over time. Indicates that the most forgetting
Increased time between Presentations
Levels of Processing- a memory model which states that the
deeper a concept is processed, the better it is remembered.
Long Term Memory
Multi-Store Model- a theory of memory proposing that all
incoming information enters the short term memory and must be
rehearsed to enter long term memory.
Primacy Effect- the finding of increased recall for items at the
beginning of an ordered list, likely due to an increased time to
rehearse early items.
Recall- a memory retrieval task in which the subject must
remember items form the encoding phase.
Recency Effect- the finding of increased recall for items at the
end of an ordered list, most likely due to the presence of these
items in short-term memory.
Recognition- a memory retrieval task in which the subject must
remember the correct response based on a set of options.
Retrieval- a measure of the probability that an individual will
achieve the same score on a test if the test is taken multiple times.
Serial Position Curve- a curve describing the recall of an ordered
list of words, indicating that recall is worst for words placed in the
Short Term Memory Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures)
Automatic Processing -An automatic process is something that
is triggered by some involuntary external event and "captures your
attention". It operates fast and is more efficient. Ex-you are driving
and someone randomly runs across the street in front of your car.
Your purpose was simply to drive to your location and you did not
know that someone would run across the street in front of your car.
So, it's something that automatically jumps out at you and you do
not have control over it.
• Triggered involuntary by external events
• Trigger the capture of attention
• Fast, efficient
• Saliency- naturally pops out
Automatic Selection-is when a stimuli immediately triggers your
attentions towards it. For ex: A person immediately darts away
when seeing a spider.
Broadbent's Single Filter Model- a theory of attention stating
that the intentional filter selects important information on the basis
of physical characteristics and allows information to continue onto
Cocktail Party Effect- the finding that relevant information, such
as our name, seems to break through into conscious perception
even when he information is presented in previously ignored
Cognitive Resources- A natural bodily response to compensate
for some incoming substance and return the body to homeostasis.
Conjunction Search- when a subject is required to search for a
target that is distinguished from the distracters on the basis of
Conscious Selection- when you specifically select something to
focus your attention on.
Controlled Processing- is voluntary and requires thinking and
cognitive effort so it operates more slowly. Ex-you are driving and
looking for a certain house number, so you would driver slower,
turn the radio down, etc so you can focus your attention on finding
the house (you are in control). This also demonstrates that
controlled processes operate slowly because you cannot only focus
your attention on finding the house but you must also still obey Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures)
traffic rules and be aware of your environment.
• Guide attention voluntary
• Conscious attention
• Slow, effortful
• Limited cognitive resources
• Ex. Driving a car
Feature Search- when a subject is required to search for a target
that is distinguished from the distractions and only allows
important information to be processed further.
Filter- a model that suggests attention acts like a filter which sifts
away distractions and only allows important information to be
Pop Out Effect- rapid visual search regardless of set size and is
easily induced by colour
Saliency- be it an object, a person, a pixel, etc. – is its state or
quality of standing out relative to neighboring items. Saliency
detection is considered to be a key attentional mechanism that
facilitates learning and survival by enabling organisms to focus
their limited perceptual and cognitive resources on the most
pertinent subset of the available sensory data. Saliency typically
arises from contrasts between items and their neighborhood, such
as a red dot surrounded by white dots, a flickering message
indicator of an answering machine, or a loud noise in an otherwise
quiet environment. Saliency detection is often studied in the
context of the visual system, but similar mechanisms operate in
other sensory systems.
Semantic Analysis- has meaning
Set Size- the number of items to search through
Set Size Effect- increase in difficulty as the set size increases
Spatial Cueing Paradigm
Spot Light Model- a model of attention describing a spotlight
that enhanced processing of objects under our focus
Stroop Task- participants are presented with a colourful word and
are asked to name the ink colour in which the word is presented.
The Stroop Effect is a demonstration of the reaction time of a task.
In the word/color situation, the response is much faster for Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures)
congruent words (spelling matches color).
I'm pretty sure that the slower the response, or if more responses
are incorrect, then higher the Stroop Effect.
According to the lecture, there is an increased Stroop Effect if there
are about 75% congruent words, and 25% incongruent words. In
this situation, word reading makes color naming easy. This results
in an increased stroop effect because one is more likely to give an
incorrect answer/take longer for incongruent (non-matching)
On the other hand, if 25% of the words match their color, and 75%
don't... there is a DECREASED stroop effect, because one is less
likely to rely on word reading.
• Congruent- matching a word & colour dimensions. Faster
• Incongruent- mismatching word and colour dimensions
Triesman's Dual Filter Model- the early filter uses physical cues
to weight the importance of incoming stimuli and passes the
information onto the semantic filter, which considers the early
filter’s weighting as well as the deeper meaning when choosing
what stimulus to attend to.
5 Factor Model
• Openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness,
• Have been replicated in man different samples, cultures, and
• Openness- reflects a desire for new, exciting and
adventurous experiences instead of constantly
repeating the same experiences
• Conscientiousness- is associated with a well-ordered
life. Individuals high on this create plans, set goals and
keep their surroundings neat and organized.
• Extraversion- is associated with a desire and ease to
engage in social interactions especially in large groups
• Agreeableness- these individuals are warm,
compassionate, polite, and caring people. These
people prefer cooperation, they are trusting and
helpful, caregiver role
• Neuroticism- are not socially desirable. They Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures)
experience a lot of psychological distress related to but
not limited fears and depression. They require a lot of
emotional support and are hypersensitive. They are
prone to anxiety, self-consciousness and insecurities.
• 1st- 3 years
• primary focus of gratification is the anal area
• first part of stage- the child gets the most pleasure from
giving up feces through bowel movements. Then parents
introduce toilet training
• child gets pleasures of holding onto feces
Anima archetype & complex
• Every male’s instinctive image of femaleness
• Feelings and thoughts rejected from consciousness because
they are feminine
Animus archetype & complex
• Every woman’s instinctive image of maleness
• Feelings and thoughts rejected from consciousness because
they are masculine
Behaviours = Personality
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy- a successful therapy for a
number of psychological disorders that combines the cognitive and
behavioural approaches. It focuses on identifying and changing
inappropriate thought patterns and the behaviours that reinforce
Collective Unconscious- in Jung’s theory, an ancient part of the
human mind that contains our archetypes. The collective
unconscious is shared by all humans yet cannot enter individual
Conscientiousness- is the trait of being painstaking and careful,
or the quality of acting according to the dictates of one's
Defense Mechanisms- are unconscious psychological strategies
brought into play by various entities to cope with reality and to
maintain self-image. Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures)
• One of Freud’s defense mechanisms, in which any memory of
an id impulse previously acted upon.
• Conscious ego engaged in an activity, but the unconscious
ego prevents any memory of the event
• Repression: impulse starts in the unconscious and never
• Denial: impulse starts in the conscious and is blocked out
• One of Freud’s defense mechanisms, in which forbidden id
impulses are socially acceptable targets.
• The unconscious ego redirects the forbidden impulse away
from its original target to a consciously acceptable target, so
that the conscious ego doesn’t feel any anxiety.
• Ex. You do not like your manager, but you can’t yell at them
so you yell at your friend instead
• One of Freud’s three psychic structures.
• The ego is aware of reality and tries to balance the desires of
the id and demands superego, while ensuring that it’s
realistically possible to do so
• Aware of outside reality
Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
• Stage 1: Trust vs. mistrust
• Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
• Stage 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt
• Stage 4 - Industry vs. Inferiority
• Stage 5 - Identity vs. Confusion
• Stage 6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation
Freud's Psychosexual Stages
• Five stages of developments that covers from birth to the
final stage at puberty, when the fundamental features of our
personality have been shaped and remain the same
throughout out adult lives.
• What distinguishes one psychosexual stage from the others
is the erogenous zone from which the child gets the most
sexual and aggressive gratification.
Freud's Tripartite Model- the model consists of three personality
structures: the Id, ego and superego. The struggle among Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures)
conscious and unconscious influences representing these three
levels is the major motivating forces in humans.
• Puberty marks the beginning of the genital stage of sexuality
• The surge of hormones produces a new wave of libido.
• The specific direction our sexual interests and urges take
depends very much on where libido was directed as we
passed through the stages of childhood sexuality
Humanistic Approach- an approach to personality that focuses
on human interests, virtues, and strengths and emphasizes the
uniqueness of every individual
• One of Freud’s three psychic structures
• Main focus is to find an experience pleasure and to avoid
pain = “pleasure principle”
• Source of basic instincts and your motivational energy that
Freud names your libido.
• Very impatient
Identification- a Freudian process where a boy in the phallic
stage becomes psychologically like his father, taking on his father’s
beliefs and values to form the basis of his superego.
Jung's Personality Theory
• The persona, the Animus and Anima, the Shadow and the
• The theme of each of these complexes is an underlying
archetype. While the archetype gives us the instinctive drive
and the energy for a certain theme, the complexes are the
personal experiences that we gather on the same theme.
• The child now enters a period of relative sexual quiescence.
• It begins at 6 and ends at puberty.
• During this stage the libido appears to be channeled into
behaviors that are not yet overly sexual.
Libido- in its common usage means sexual desire; however more
technical definitions, such as those found in the work of Carl Jung,
are more general, referring to libido as the free creative—or
psychic—energy an individual has to put toward personal
development or individuation. Within the category of sexual
behavior, libido would fall under the appetitive phase wherein an Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures)
individual will usually undergo certain behaviors in order to gain
access to a mate
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
• Hierarchy of steps that you must satisfy in order to develop a
healthy ideal personality. In total there at five steps and
needs: physiological, safety, love, belongingness, esteem,
and self actualization
• Physiological- what your body needs for survival most
notably food, water, and air. If not obtained, your main
focus is to find them
• Safety- attention focuses on safety (living
place/conditions) and security( steady income for
• Belongingness and love- this level represents out need
for social relationships and our need to feel connected to
other people. It is satisfied by forming close relationships
and romantic relationships
• Esteem- two forms of esteem. The first is self-esteem,
which is feelings of self-worth and respect you have for
yourself. The second type of esteem needs is to have the
esteem of other expressed via social status and
• Self-actualization- motivation focuses on maximizing
personal abilities and strengths. Most people do not
reach this pinnacle stage.
Mediator- the ego
• A Freudian conflict that takes place in boys during the phallic
stage (3-6 years).
• Boys want to possess mother, but see father as an
insurmountable obstacle, leading to identification with
• The complex begins when the ego invests sexual libido to his
• Although the boy’s motive is sexual gratification, it isn’t
• Primary goal is having mother to himself without
• Parallel process in girls
• Girl thought she once had penis, but mother rid of it, and
then girl experiences a strong desire to regain a penis: this Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures)
penis envy leads her to direct sexual desires towards dad
• She wants to rid of mom, but realizes mom is to strong to
eliminate, so identifies herself with mom
• The girls superego is formed from mother’s own beliefs and
• Birth- 1 year
• Discover the mouth and pleasures of sucking and swallowing,
and later biting and chewing.
• Bottle, breast thumb
Persona Archetype and Complex
• Our instinct for social conformity; our instinctual need to be
with others and to please them
• Our public self; those feelings, thoughts and impulses that
we present to others because we think they will be approved.
Persona Unconscious- in Jung’s theory, the repository of all
repressed thoughts, memories, and emotions. Contains our
Phallic Stage- third stage of psychosexual development, which
begins at about 3 and lasts until 6. During this stage the child
discovers the pleasures of stimulating the phallic area
• One of Freud’s defense mechanisms, in which anxiety-
producing thoughts are attributed to someone else.
• One of Freud’s defense mechanisms. In which an id impulse
is justified in a non-threatening way.
• Unconscious ego justifies some conscious action
• The conscious ego had done something dangerous or
immoral, so the unconscious ego floods consciousness with
plausible, non-threatening reasons for the behavior.
• No anxiety is experience
• One of Freud’s defense mechanisms, in which conscious Ego
is flooded with images opposite to an id impulse
• The conscious ego is protected from anxiety by being filled
with ideas and feelings that are opposite to the actual Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures)
• Ex. Liking someone who does not share same feelings, you
will then dislike person
• One of Freud’s defense mechanisms, in which id impulses are
blocked from reaching consciousness, yet can sometimes slip
• Ego blocks id impulse from reaching consciousness
• Information can sometimes sneak through (Freudian slips, or
symbolically disguised as dream images)
Self-Actualization- the highest level of personality development
in both Maslow’s and Jung’s theories.
• Jung- is the unification of all complexes
• Maslow- is the maximization of one’s potential
Shadow- a special archetype/complex in Jung’s theory.
• As an archetype, it is out most basic and primitive set of
instincts for sexuality and aggression as well as a source of
energy, vitality, creativity and intuition.
• As a complex, it Is all things about ourselves, including
emotions and impulses, that we reject as not being
• One of Freud’s three psychic structures.
• The superego is focused on upholding moral principles and
forms the basis of one’s moral standards and conscious.
• Sole goal Is to remain morally perfect
• Comes into play around 5/6
• Conscience stems form your superego
Antisocial PD- a personality disorder also known as psychopathy.
Patients show a history of erratic behaviour and often
irresponsible, selfish, and manipulative.
Anxiety Disorders- suffer from intense, prolonged feelings of
fright and distress that often interferes with their relationships and Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures)
may sometimes even interfere with their ability to work and
perform daily tasks.
Anxious and Fearful Cluster- have symptoms similar to anxiety
Beck's Depressogenic Schemata- under stress, people with
these tendencies develop unrealistically negative and demeaning
interpretations of those events, leading to very negative views of
himself, the world and his future.
Behaviourist model-disordered behaviours and emotions are not
symptoms of anything inside the person.
Biological model- also known as medical or disease model,
assumes that a psychological disorder result from malfunction in
the brain. May malfunction because it is physically damaged, or
because there is abnormal activity of chemicals
Bipolar Disorder- a mood disorder in which patients cycle
between episodes of unipolar depression and mania. During mania
a person experienced heightened self-esteem activity, and energy
and sleep very little.
Borderline PD- a personality disorder in which patients display
erratic and highly unstable emotions and behaviour
Catatonic Behaviors- one of the symptoms of schizophrenia.
Includes rigidity, waxy flexibility, or stereotypes motor movements.
These behaviours are unrelated to stimuli from the outside world.
Catatonia may involve a dramatic reduction in movement,
sometimes to the point of ceasing to move at all and may stay in
the same position for a long period of time.
Catatonic Subtype- a subtype of schizophrenia predominantly
defined by psychomotor symptoms such as catatonic rigidity,
catatonic excitement, or waxy flexibility.
Cognitive Model- suggests that mental disorder result from
maladaptive or inappropriate ways of selecting and interpreti