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Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures) Memory 7+/-2 Capacity Acquisition- the process by which the frequency of a response is raised from its initial level to some final, steady rate Attribution- judgments tying together causes with effects Distraction task Encoding Specificity- the finding that recall is better when retrieval takes place in similar conditions to encoding illustrating that our memory is affected by out internal and external environment. False Memory- Fluency- the ease with which an experiment is processed Forgetting Curve- a curve describing the amount of information lost from memory over time. Indicates that the most forgetting occurs initially. Implemented Memory Increased time between Presentations Levels of Processing- a memory model which states that the deeper a concept is processed, the better it is remembered. Long Term Memory Multi-Store Model- a theory of memory proposing that all incoming information enters the short term memory and must be rehearsed to enter long term memory. Primacy Effect- the finding of increased recall for items at the beginning of an ordered list, likely due to an increased time to rehearse early items. Recall- a memory retrieval task in which the subject must remember items form the encoding phase. Recency Effect- the finding of increased recall for items at the end of an ordered list, most likely due to the presence of these items in short-term memory. Recognition- a memory retrieval task in which the subject must remember the correct response based on a set of options. Retrieval- a measure of the probability that an individual will achieve the same score on a test if the test is taken multiple times. Serial Position Curve- a curve describing the recall of an ordered list of words, indicating that recall is worst for words placed in the middle. Short Term Memory Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures) Storage Attention Attenuation- Automatic Processing -An automatic process is something that is triggered by some involuntary external event and "captures your attention". It operates fast and is more efficient. Ex-you are driving and someone randomly runs across the street in front of your car. Your purpose was simply to drive to your location and you did not know that someone would run across the street in front of your car. So, it's something that automatically jumps out at you and you do not have control over it. • Triggered involuntary by external events • Trigger the capture of attention • Fast, efficient • Saliency- naturally pops out Automatic Selection-is when a stimuli immediately triggers your attentions towards it. For ex: A person immediately darts away when seeing a spider. Broadbent's Single Filter Model- a theory of attention stating that the intentional filter selects important information on the basis of physical characteristics and allows information to continue onto further processing. Cocktail Party Effect- the finding that relevant information, such as our name, seems to break through into conscious perception even when he information is presented in previously ignored system Cognitive Resources- A natural bodily response to compensate for some incoming substance and return the body to homeostasis. Conjunction Search- when a subject is required to search for a target that is distinguished from the distracters on the basis of multiple features. Conscious Selection- when you specifically select something to focus your attention on. Controlled Processing- is voluntary and requires thinking and cognitive effort so it operates more slowly. Ex-you are driving and looking for a certain house number, so you would driver slower, turn the radio down, etc so you can focus your attention on finding the house (you are in control). This also demonstrates that controlled processes operate slowly because you cannot only focus your attention on finding the house but you must also still obey Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures) traffic rules and be aware of your environment. • Guide attention voluntary • Conscious attention • Slow, effortful • Limited cognitive resources • Ex. Driving a car Feature Search- when a subject is required to search for a target that is distinguished from the distractions and only allows important information to be processed further. Filter- a model that suggests attention acts like a filter which sifts away distractions and only allows important information to be processed further. Learning Effects Pop Out Effect- rapid visual search regardless of set size and is easily induced by colour Saliency- be it an object, a person, a pixel, etc. – is its state or quality of standing out relative to neighboring items. Saliency detection is considered to be a key attentional mechanism that facilitates learning and survival by enabling organisms to focus their limited perceptual and cognitive resources on the most pertinent subset of the available sensory data. Saliency typically arises from contrasts between items and their neighborhood, such as a red dot surrounded by white dots, a flickering message indicator of an answering machine, or a loud noise in an otherwise quiet environment. Saliency detection is often studied in the context of the visual system, but similar mechanisms operate in other sensory systems. Selected Input Semantic Analysis- has meaning Sensory Information Set Size- the number of items to search through Set Size Effect- increase in difficulty as the set size increases Spatial Cueing Paradigm Spot Light Model- a model of attention describing a spotlight that enhanced processing of objects under our focus Stroop Task- participants are presented with a colourful word and are asked to name the ink colour in which the word is presented. The Stroop Effect is a demonstration of the reaction time of a task. In the word/color situation, the response is much faster for Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures) congruent words (spelling matches color). I'm pretty sure that the slower the response, or if more responses are incorrect, then higher the Stroop Effect. According to the lecture, there is an increased Stroop Effect if there are about 75% congruent words, and 25% incongruent words. In this situation, word reading makes color naming easy. This results in an increased stroop effect because one is more likely to give an incorrect answer/take longer for incongruent (non-matching) words. On the other hand, if 25% of the words match their color, and 75% don't... there is a DECREASED stroop effect, because one is less likely to rely on word reading. • Congruent- matching a word & colour dimensions. Faster • Incongruent- mismatching word and colour dimensions Triesman's Dual Filter Model- the early filter uses physical cues to weight the importance of incoming stimuli and passes the information onto the semantic filter, which considers the early filter’s weighting as well as the deeper meaning when choosing what stimulus to attend to. Visual Search Personality 5 Factor Model • Openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism • Have been replicated in man different samples, cultures, and languages. • Openness- reflects a desire for new, exciting and adventurous experiences instead of constantly repeating the same experiences • Conscientiousness- is associated with a well-ordered life. Individuals high on this create plans, set goals and keep their surroundings neat and organized. • Extraversion- is associated with a desire and ease to engage in social interactions especially in large groups of people. • Agreeableness- these individuals are warm, compassionate, polite, and caring people. These people prefer cooperation, they are trusting and helpful, caregiver role • Neuroticism- are not socially desirable. They Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures) experience a lot of psychological distress related to but not limited fears and depression. They require a lot of emotional support and are hypersensitive. They are prone to anxiety, self-consciousness and insecurities. Ex. Me. Anal Stage • 1st- 3 years • primary focus of gratification is the anal area • first part of stage- the child gets the most pleasure from giving up feces through bowel movements. Then parents introduce toilet training • child gets pleasures of holding onto feces Anima archetype & complex Archetype: • Every male’s instinctive image of femaleness Complex: • Feelings and thoughts rejected from consciousness because they are feminine Animus archetype & complex Archetype: • Every woman’s instinctive image of maleness Complex: • Feelings and thoughts rejected from consciousness because they are masculine Behaviours = Personality Cognitive Behavioural Therapy- a successful therapy for a number of psychological disorders that combines the cognitive and behavioural approaches. It focuses on identifying and changing inappropriate thought patterns and the behaviours that reinforce them Collective Unconscious- in Jung’s theory, an ancient part of the human mind that contains our archetypes. The collective unconscious is shared by all humans yet cannot enter individual human consciousness. Conscientiousness- is the trait of being painstaking and careful, or the quality of acting according to the dictates of one's conscience. Defense Mechanisms- are unconscious psychological strategies brought into play by various entities to cope with reality and to maintain self-image. Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures) Denial • One of Freud’s defense mechanisms, in which any memory of an id impulse previously acted upon. • Conscious ego engaged in an activity, but the unconscious ego prevents any memory of the event • Repression: impulse starts in the unconscious and never becomes conscious • Denial: impulse starts in the conscious and is blocked out Displacement • One of Freud’s defense mechanisms, in which forbidden id impulses are socially acceptable targets. • The unconscious ego redirects the forbidden impulse away from its original target to a consciously acceptable target, so that the conscious ego doesn’t feel any anxiety. • Ex. You do not like your manager, but you can’t yell at them so you yell at your friend instead Ego • One of Freud’s three psychic structures. • The ego is aware of reality and tries to balance the desires of the id and demands superego, while ensuring that it’s realistically possible to do so • Aware of outside reality Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Stages • Stage 1: Trust vs. mistrust • Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt • Stage 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt • Stage 4 - Industry vs. Inferiority • Stage 5 - Identity vs. Confusion • Stage 6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation Extraversion Freud's Psychosexual Stages • Five stages of developments that covers from birth to the final stage at puberty, when the fundamental features of our personality have been shaped and remain the same throughout out adult lives. • What distinguishes one psychosexual stage from the others is the erogenous zone from which the child gets the most sexual and aggressive gratification. • Freud's Tripartite Model- the model consists of three personality structures: the Id, ego and superego. The struggle among Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures) conscious and unconscious influences representing these three levels is the major motivating forces in humans. Genital Stage • Puberty marks the beginning of the genital stage of sexuality • The surge of hormones produces a new wave of libido. • The specific direction our sexual interests and urges take depends very much on where libido was directed as we passed through the stages of childhood sexuality Goal-Oriented Humanistic Approach- an approach to personality that focuses on human interests, virtues, and strengths and emphasizes the uniqueness of every individual Id • One of Freud’s three psychic structures • Main focus is to find an experience pleasure and to avoid pain = “pleasure principle” • Source of basic instincts and your motivational energy that Freud names your libido. • Very impatient Identification- a Freudian process where a boy in the phallic stage becomes psychologically like his father, taking on his father’s beliefs and values to form the basis of his superego. Jung's Personality Theory • The persona, the Animus and Anima, the Shadow and the Self. • The theme of each of these complexes is an underlying archetype. While the archetype gives us the instinctive drive and the energy for a certain theme, the complexes are the personal experiences that we gather on the same theme. Latency Stage • The child now enters a period of relative sexual quiescence. • It begins at 6 and ends at puberty. • During this stage the libido appears to be channeled into behaviors that are not yet overly sexual. Libido- in its common usage means sexual desire; however more technical definitions, such as those found in the work of Carl Jung, are more general, referring to libido as the free creative—or psychic—energy an individual has to put toward personal development or individuation. Within the category of sexual behavior, libido would fall under the appetitive phase wherein an Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures) individual will usually undergo certain behaviors in order to gain access to a mate Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs • Hierarchy of steps that you must satisfy in order to develop a healthy ideal personality. In total there at five steps and needs: physiological, safety, love, belongingness, esteem, and self actualization • Physiological- what your body needs for survival most notably food, water, and air. If not obtained, your main focus is to find them • Safety- attention focuses on safety (living place/conditions) and security( steady income for stability) • Belongingness and love- this level represents out need for social relationships and our need to feel connected to other people. It is satisfied by forming close relationships and romantic relationships • Esteem- two forms of esteem. The first is self-esteem, which is feelings of self-worth and respect you have for yourself. The second type of esteem needs is to have the esteem of other expressed via social status and recognition. • Self-actualization- motivation focuses on maximizing personal abilities and strengths. Most people do not reach this pinnacle stage. Mediator- the ego Neuroticism Oedipus Complex • A Freudian conflict that takes place in boys during the phallic stage (3-6 years). • Boys want to possess mother, but see father as an insurmountable obstacle, leading to identification with father. • The complex begins when the ego invests sexual libido to his mother. • Although the boy’s motive is sexual gratification, it isn’t sexual intercourse • Primary goal is having mother to himself without competition. Electra Complex • Parallel process in girls • Girl thought she once had penis, but mother rid of it, and then girl experiences a strong desire to regain a penis: this Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures) penis envy leads her to direct sexual desires towards dad • She wants to rid of mom, but realizes mom is to strong to eliminate, so identifies herself with mom • The girls superego is formed from mother’s own beliefs and values Oral Stage • Birth- 1 year • Discover the mouth and pleasures of sucking and swallowing, and later biting and chewing. • Bottle, breast thumb Persona Archetype and Complex Archetype: • Our instinct for social conformity; our instinctual need to be with others and to please them Complex: • Our public self; those feelings, thoughts and impulses that we present to others because we think they will be approved. Persona Unconscious- in Jung’s theory, the repository of all repressed thoughts, memories, and emotions. Contains our complexes. Phallic Stage- third stage of psychosexual development, which begins at about 3 and lasts until 6. During this stage the child discovers the pleasures of stimulating the phallic area Projection • One of Freud’s defense mechanisms, in which anxiety- producing thoughts are attributed to someone else. Rationalization • One of Freud’s defense mechanisms. In which an id impulse is justified in a non-threatening way. • Unconscious ego justifies some conscious action • The conscious ego had done something dangerous or immoral, so the unconscious ego floods consciousness with plausible, non-threatening reasons for the behavior. • No anxiety is experience Reaction Formation • One of Freud’s defense mechanisms, in which conscious Ego is flooded with images opposite to an id impulse • The conscious ego is protected from anxiety by being filled with ideas and feelings that are opposite to the actual Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures) impulse • Ex. Liking someone who does not share same feelings, you will then dislike person Repression • One of Freud’s defense mechanisms, in which id impulses are blocked from reaching consciousness, yet can sometimes slip through. • Ego blocks id impulse from reaching consciousness • Information can sometimes sneak through (Freudian slips, or symbolically disguised as dream images) Self-Actualization- the highest level of personality development in both Maslow’s and Jung’s theories. • Jung- is the unification of all complexes • Maslow- is the maximization of one’s potential Shadow- a special archetype/complex in Jung’s theory. • As an archetype, it is out most basic and primitive set of instincts for sexuality and aggression as well as a source of energy, vitality, creativity and intuition. • As a complex, it Is all things about ourselves, including emotions and impulses, that we reject as not being ourselves. Superego • One of Freud’s three psychic structures. • The superego is focused on upholding moral principles and forms the basis of one’s moral standards and conscious. • Sole goal Is to remain morally perfect • Comes into play around 5/6 • Conscience stems form your superego Psychopathology Abnormal Neurotransmitters Abnormality Antisocial PD- a personality disorder also known as psychopathy. Patients show a history of erratic behaviour and often irresponsible, selfish, and manipulative. Anxiety Disorders- suffer from intense, prolonged feelings of fright and distress that often interferes with their relationships and Suggested Word List for Concept Maps (Post-Midterm Lectures) may sometimes even interfere with their ability to work and perform daily tasks. Anxious and Fearful Cluster- have symptoms similar to anxiety disorders Beck's Depressogenic Schemata- under stress, people with these tendencies develop unrealistically negative and demeaning interpretations of those events, leading to very negative views of himself, the world and his future. Behaviourist model-disordered behaviours and emotions are not symptoms of anything inside the person. Biological model- also known as medical or disease model, assumes that a psychological disorder result from malfunction in the brain. May malfunction because it is physically damaged, or because there is abnormal activity of chemicals Bipolar Disorder- a mood disorder in which patients cycle between episodes of unipolar depression and mania. During mania a person experienced heightened self-esteem activity, and energy and sleep very little. Borderline PD- a personality disorder in which patients display erratic and highly unstable emotions and behaviour Catatonic Behaviors- one of the symptoms of schizophrenia. Includes rigidity, waxy flexibility, or stereotypes motor movements. These behaviours are unrelated to stimuli from the outside world. Catatonia may involve a dramatic reduction in movement, sometimes to the point of ceasing to move at all and may stay in the same position for a long period of time. Catatonic Subtype- a subtype of schizophrenia predominantly defined by psychomotor symptoms such as catatonic rigidity, catatonic excitement, or waxy flexibility. Cognitive Model- suggests that mental disorder result from maladaptive or inappropriate ways of selecting and interpreti
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