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PSYCH 1X03 Review.docx

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

PYSCH 1X03 REVIEW Fall 2012 Research Methods Placebo Effect: effect that occurs when an individual exhibits a response to a treatment that has no related therapeutic effect  plan for it (blinding)  creates participant bias *P-Value less than 0.5 is considered effective* T-Test: the probability of getting the results by chance if there is only on distribution Correlation causation Levels of Analysis  Muller believed that our brain worked on electrical impulses  Wilhelm Wundt opened the first study of psychology  G Stanley Hall founded the American Psychological Association Behavioral (John B Watson)  The mind should be an off limits black box – takes input and makes output – “outside the domain of science”  Nurture over nature – BF Skinner: everything we want to know about an organism can be found by studying its behavior  Behavior modification – positive and negative reinforcements Cognitive  Argued that psychology could and must return to an interest of what foes on in the mind and under the right circumstances  Use models – abstract representations of how the mind functions – can be used to make testable predictions – models are always changing Biological Perspective and Reductionism  Reductionism: all problems can be solved by the biology of the brain  Additional levels of analysis can enhance this study  Neuroimaging: less evasive methods look at the brain  Structural MRI – physical make up of brain  Functional MRI – what the brain is doing Evolutionary ad Developmental Perspectives  Developmental: how genetic and environmental factors contribute to changes in behavior across a life span  Evolutionary: how genetic and environmental factors contribute to change across the history of a species Socio-cultural Perspective  How individuals are influenced by culture and other people  Interested in the influence of: - an individual on a group – a group on an individual – one group on another Classical Conditioning  Associating two unrelated events  Ivan Pavlov – “pavlovian conditioning”  dog salivating metronome experiment “conditional reflex” Contingencies: when the first event (signal) is consistently followed by the second event, the association that an organism may form between these events is contingency Unconditional Stimulus (US): any stimulus or event – occurs naturally, prior to learning – response without training Unconditional Response (UR): the response that occurs after the unconditional stimulus – occurs naturally, prior to learning – biological response Conditional Stimulus (CS): paired with unconditioned stimulus to produce a learned contingency – appears before US and requires training Conditional Response (CR): the response that occurs once the contingencies between CS and US have been learned Acquisition: takes awhile to learn contingencies – most of the learning takes place in the first few trails – some cases where one trial is enough *Conditioning can last forever unless the CS becomes an unreliable cue for the US Extinction: the loss of the CR when the CS no longer predicts the US Spontaneous Recovery: extinction involves a new inhibitory learned response competes with the original learned contingency Stimulus Generalization: stimuli similar to the CS will often also produce a CR Generalization Gradient: similar stimuli may lead to fear but it may be different levels based on the difference of the fear Phobia: an exaggerated, intense and persistent fear of certain situations, activities, things or people – can arise with or without a specific traumatic experience Implosive Therapy: individual is encouraged to confront the fear CS that evokes their anxiety –it can be traumatic Systematic Desensitization: more gradual exposure to the feared CS – generalization gradient – working to the middle Discrimination: make the gradient narrower – remove the contingency reactions to gradients while leaving the original CS Instrumental Conditioning Instrumental Conditioning: involves explicit training between voluntary behaviors and their consequences – the learning of a contingency between behavior and consequence Trying to: stamping in proper behavior – stamping out random behaviors Law of Effect: behaviors with positive consequences are stamped in – those with negative consequences are stamped out Reinforcer: any stimulus presented after a response leads to a change in the rate of that response – positive or negative reinforcers: presented or removed Presentation of a positive reinforcer – reward training (positive reinforcer) – increase in behavior Presentation of a negative reinforcer- punishment (positive punishment) – decrease in behavior Removal of positive reinforcer – omission training (negative punishment) – decrease in behavior – “time out procedure” Removal of a negative reinforcer – escape training (negative reinforcer) – decrease in behavior *More effective if consequence follows the response immediately * Acquisition: learning the contingency between a response and its consequences Shaping by Successive approximation: complex behavior can be organized into smaller steps, which gradually build up to the full response – reward training can reinforce each step Discriminative Stimulus: signals when a contingency between a particular response and reinforcement is “on” i.e. Environment Extinction: removal of positive reinforcement may lead to loss of contingency Continuous Reinforcement: a response leads to a reinforce on every single trial Partial Reinforcement: reinforcement delivery determined by either total work or time Ratio Schedule of reinforcement: based on number of responses made by a subject, which determines when reinforcement is given Fixed  constant across trials Variable  random with some mean Variable ratio schedule: reinforcement is delivered after some random number of responses around a characteristic mean Fixed ratio schedule: reinforcement is delivered after a set number of responses  cannot be stingy Fixed interval schedule: reinforcement in delivered following the first response after a set interval of time Variable interval schedule: reinforcement is delivered following the first response after a variable interval of time, around a characteristic mean Overjustification Effect: an external incentive like a reward, decreases a person’s intrinsic motivation to preform a particular task Language 3 Criteria for “true” language 1. Regular – governed by rules and grammar 2. Language is arbitrary – a specific sound is assigned to represent a concept  lack of resemblance between words and their meaning 3. Language s productive – almost limitless ways to describe objects, situations and actions The Whorf- Sapir Hypothesis  You use language to form your own thoughts * Language influences our thoughts and the way we perceive and experience the world*  Research to supports and disprove hypothesis Structure of Language Morphemes: smallest units of sound that contain information  form complete words and a single word can be a made of more than on morpheme e.g. (table) or (table) (cloth) or (tables)(s) Phonemes: constituent sounds – various languages contain different libraries of useable phonemes and rules about how they can be combined Syntax: rules that govern how sentences are put together – grammar Semantics: meaning of each individual word Language Development i. 12 weeks – makes cooing sounds ii. 16 weeks – turns head towards voices iii. 6 months – imitates sounds iv. 1 year – babbles – drawn out sounds made up of a variety of combinations of vowels and constants v. 2 years – uses 50 -250 words; uses 2 word phrases vi. 2.5 years – vocabulary is greater than 850 words Segmentation Problem: becoming disoriented because of not knowing when a word stops or starts Infant- Directed Speech: the tendency for mothers to use higher pitch and exaggerated changes in pitch when speaking to infants – may help to learn to segment speech * Very young infants can discriminate more phonemes than adults can Universal phoneme sensitivity: the ability of infants to discriminate between any sound they are tested on – includes sounds from non-native languages Perceptual narrowing: the process of losing the ability to distinguish between contrasts in sounds not used in native language Accents  Accents are shaped by the location and dominant speech patterns in the environment in which an individual is raised Foreign Accent Syndrome: Individual’s sound as though they are speaking their native language with a novel acquired foreign accent  Injury to Broca’s Area – problem may be in speech production  Cerebellum – lack of fine motor coordination can affect the pronunciation of specific phonemes Social learning theory: children learn language through a combination of imitations and operant conditioning Overextensions: when a children apply a rule too broadly, can occur at the level of meaning or syntax i.e. doggie is everything Under extensions: when children apply a rule to a specific object only i.e. doggie is only her dog Innate Mechanism Theory – Language Acquisition Device: an innate mechanism, present only in humans, that helps language develop rapidly according to universal rules Transparent Orthographies: more transparent orthographies a languages contains, the fewer associations between letter and phonemes must be learned – fewer letters that can present more than one phoneme – learning a language is easier and quicker Chimps and Language Washoe – chimp raised as human – could use signs to communicate requests – did not seem to use systematic grammar Sarah – taught to use symbols to communicate – used a large vocabulary – was able to answer questions – could not generate sentences Kanzi – taught to use lexigrams to communicate – utilized full immersion rather than classical conditioning – could communicate some novel requests – limited grammar – productive Problem Solving and Intelligence Intelligence: the cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, reason well, remember important information, and cope with the demands of daily living Problem Solving Deductive reasoning: idea (general current knowledge)  conclusion (specific) - Concrete conclusion based on general idea Inductive reasoning: fact (specific)  idea (general/ broad) - Generate an idea given some concrete information Insight Problem: a special category of problem that are designed to test your ability to think “outside the box” Functional fixedness: difficulty seeing alternative uses for common objects Two important qualities of a test:  Reliability: a reliable test produces the same result if one person takes it multiple times  Validity: a valid test measures only the trait it is supposed to be measuring Francis Galton: recorded how quickly subjects could respond to sensory motor tasks by their reaction time – faster reaction time = higher intelligence – unbiased and reliable Stanford- Binet Intelligence Test: 30 short tasks related to everyday life – name parts of body – compare lengths and weights- define words, name objects in pictures – still used Charles Spearman + ‘G’: single type of intelligence- those who did well in one area often did well in other areas as well – generalized intelligence “G” Howard Gardner: eight different types- each intelligence is independent from one another 1. Linguistic – verbal 2. Mathematical – logical 3. Rhythmic – musical 4. Spatial – visual 5. Kinesthetic – bodily 6. Interpersonal 7. Intrapersonal 8. Naturalistic Wechsler Scale: specific IQ is relative to the performance of the rest of the population  mean score gets 100  IQ standardized mean is always 100 – raw scores have risen since 1932 but not the mean Flynn Effect: raw IQ scores have been on the rise since 1932 – increased quality of schooling – easier access to information through books, TV, Internet Jean Piaget: by manipulating and exploring their environments, children incorporate new information into what they know Schema: a mental framework for interpreting the world around us Assimilation: incorporation of new information into existing schemas Accommodation: modifying existing schemas to fit incompatible information 4 Stages of Development Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 yrs.) – child recognizes they can change environment – acts with intention – object permanence: realization that objects continue to exist when no longer visible Preoperational Stage (2-7 yrs.) – mastered object permanence – still has number of important cognitive limitation – problem with seriation: the ability to logically order a series of objects – revisable relations – conservation – ego central Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 yrs.) – performs all the things preoperational child struggled with – unable to think in abstract terms or reason based on hypotheses Formal Operational Stage (11+ yrs.) – able to think in abstract terms, work with hypotheses and do everything else that make up the range of adult cognitive abilities Confirmation Bias: tendency to seek out information that supports our hypothesis Availability Heuristic: tendency to make decisions based on the information that is most quickly available to us Representativeness Heuristic: tendency to assume that what we are seeing is representative of the larger category we have in mind Categories and Concepts Function of Categorization o Classification: allows you to treat objects that appear differently as belonging together o Predicting: categorizing current experience and comparing it to similar experience in memory, you can make predictions about your current situation o Communication: many words refer to some type of category or concept – using the category name allows for efficient communication Illusion of the expert: something must be simple because you are good at it  must have simple rule Prototype Theory: suggests that we categorize objects by comparing them to an internal representation of the category called a prototype – formed through experience – very personal  further away the new object is from our prototype the less likely it is to be fit into that category Exemplar Theory: compares everything to past examples – you store your entire lifetime worth of experience instead of one average category prototype – search through exemplar library to compare current object  Children as young as three able to understand general categories  understand innate properties of a given category Recentcy effect: (exemplar theory): most recent experience will lead to decision Ludwig Wittgenstein: hard to come up with a rule for categories – more likely to use exemplar theory  Human have an innate understanding of the difference between living and non-living objects Attention Selection: attending to something causes the object of attention to be selected apart from the rest of the unattended objects  conscious ability to attend to the information that is relevant to our goals Automatic Processes: involuntary “capture” – fast, efficient Controlled Processes: conscious attention – slow, effortful – more cognitive effort Spotlight Model – Michael Posner – attentional spotlight illuminates on one part of the environment at a time Filter Models  The ability to separate target sounds from background noise is based on physical characteristics such as gender of the speaker and the direction, pitch or speed of the speech Information  filter  further processing Broadbent’s Single Filter Model – the attentional filter selects important information on the basis of physical characteristics, allows that information to continue to further processing  information not based through filter is completely eliminates Von Wright et al. – some information is processed in the unattended ear – subjects show a response to unattended information Triesman’s Dual Filter Model – participants are able to remember important information in the unattended stream  particularly common when the unattended information is highly relevant Two filters – Physical – attenuation – physical cues  Semantic – meaning Stroop Task – presented a colour word and asked to name the ink colour it is written in Congruent – matching word and colour – faster Incongruent- unmatching colour and word – slower Proportion Congruent Manipulation: change the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials 75% congruent, 25% incongruent  increased stroop effect (more automatic) 25% congruent, 75% incongruent 
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