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Psychology Exam Review 2013.docx

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Psychology Exam Review 2013 Modules Levels of Analysis Research Methods Part 1: The Scientific Approach to Behaviour Basic Rules of Scientific Inquiry Parsimony – when presented with two equally valid explanations, scientists ted to prefer the simpler of the two Natural Order – when we look at human behavior, we often see the same kinds of behavior occur in widely varied settings and cultures – following the principle of natural order, we assume that this behavior (ex. Smiling) is a reflection of the same underlying mechanism in people all over the world Generalizability – the dictation that we ascribe the same causes to the same effect when we observe phenomena occurring across different situations. The same causes that produce our effects in the lab also produce those effects in everyday life situations over which the scientists control Conservatism – scientists are conservative in the sense that they tend to support the current theory until new facts accumulate to force the theory to be modified or abandoned Empiricism and Objectivity – knowledge should be based on actual observation not just a reason alone Inductive and Deductive Reasoning In Science: Inductive Reasoning – to move from a collection of specific observations (facts) for form an idea of their relationship in a theory i.e. because cats, dogs and cows are all warm-blooded you formulate the 4 legs theory that all four-legged animals are warm blooded (you are assuming) Deductive Reasoning – to test the theory to make specific predictions i.e. if all 4 legged animals are warm blooded then elephants should be warm blooded too, as they are also 4 legged animals even though no elephants were observed when formulated the theory Steps In Scientific Investigation: 1. Theory – (studying an idea) scientists begin by studying the existing collection of information about the world, such as previous work published by other scientists – this information helps them to construct a theory – a general set of ideas of how the world works 2. Hypothesis – (predictions) makes specific prediction about the relationship between variables involved in the theory 3. Research Method – (research methods) must carefully select a research method that is appropriate for the test at hand, most psychologists prefer the experiment 4. Collect Data – (collecting) actually collecting data using one or more of several techniques 5. Analyze Data – (analyze) once the data has been collected, a researcher uses statistical tools to analyze these data to reveal patterns and determine whether the findings support their hypothesis 6. Report Findings – individual scientists and the scientific community as a whole review all findings on a topic to revise existing theories 7. Revise Theories – theories are continually being revised to account for new information Part 2: Looking for Causes: Experimental Research Experiment – the procedure of choice used to systematically study a problem in psychology  The researcher manipulates one or more variables under controlled lab conditions and measures the changes that occur in a second variable Operational Definitions: Construct – a construct is a way of t
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