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Psychology 1XX3 Notes.pdf

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

DevelopmentJanuary0609958 PMDefinitionsDevelopmentThe continuities and changes that occur within an individual between conception and deathMaturationThe biologically planned unfolding of changes within an individualLearningThe relatively permanent enduring changes to our thoughts behaviours and feelings through learning processesIntegrationist PerspectiveDevelopment is the combinationinteraction of Maturation and LearningStudying DevelopmentWe changedevelop most as young children4 Ways to Measure Abilities in InfantsHabituation ProcedurePresent infant with same stimulus over and over and measure physiological responseContinue until physiological response drops back to baseline valuePresent new stimuliIf there is an increase in physiological activity then the infant recognizes the new stimuli as new if not the infant does cannot tell the difference between both stimuliEventRelated PotentialsMeasure infants brainwaves in different brain areasSame procedure as HabituationHigh Amplitude SuckingMeasures baseline suckingStimulus presented based on increased suckingSucking behaviour can be used to tell weather or not the infant liked the stimulusPreference MethodInfant is placed in a looking chamber with two stimuliResearcher measures which stimuli the infant pays more attention toCompetence Performance DistinctionAn individual may fail a task not because they lack cognitive abilities but because they were unable to demonstrate themDevelopmental Research DesignLongitudinal DesignSame individuals are studied repeatedly over a subset of their lifespanAllows assessment of development changeVery costly and time consumingProblems with Selective AttritionSome people quit or become unfit to continuedie creating a different sample at different time pointsProne to practice effectsCrossSectional DesignPeople from different age groups are tested at onceStill allows assessment of development changeMuch less costly and time consumingYou cannot be entirely sure if trends are due to developmental changes or generational differencesCannot asses individual changes Psychology 1XX3 Notes Page 1 The Integrationist PerspectiveNatureNurture DebateBehaviourist100 nurture anyone can become anything based on environment and teachingGenetic100 Nature everything you can be is based on the genes your parents gave youCanalization PrincipleGenotype Restricts the phenotypes to a small number of developmental outcomesInfant Babbling is all the same at first but cultural influences shape the eventual outcomeYour potential range for height is based on environment but it is still fixed between two finite values TraitsRange of Reaction PrincipleGenotypeestablishes a range of possible responses to different kinds of life experiencesYour potential range for height is based on environment but it is still fixed between two finite values behaviourEnvironmentGene interaction3 ways Genes influence environmentPassive GenotypeEnvironmental CorrelationsEnvironment parents raise children in is based on their genesMajor factor early in lifeEvocative GenotypeEnvironmental CorrelationsThe traits we inherit affect how other people behave and react to usRelatively constant throughout lifeActive GenotypeEnvironmental CorrelationsGenotype influences the type of environment we seekBecome more dominant as we grow oldermore independentCritical PeriodsDefinitionA window of opportunity with a persons development in which particular environmental stimulation is necessary in order to see permanent changes in particular abilitiesWithout a normal level of stimulation certain functions cannot be developed to a normal levelExtraStimulation is not always positiveDuring development We begin with a large number of synapses and then prune them as we growExperienceExpectant Brain GrowthThe fact that our brains have evolved to expect some normal level of environmental input and with this our brain develops normallyExperienceDependant Brain GrowthThe way our brain develops based on our experiencesSensitive PeriodMaintains some residual capacity for system modification into adulthood brain growth The fact that our brain develops based on our experiencesMore flexible in the timing of when the stimulation occurs Psychology 1XX3 Notes Page 2 EvolutionJanuary1909432 PMAdaptationsAn adaptation is some specific aspect of an organism organized to perform some specific function ex The eyeAdaptations can be physical or psychologicalPsychologists are AdaptationistsYou must figure out what a system is created to do before you can analyze how it does itEvolution by Natural SelectionThe Theory of Natural SelectionIndividual DifferencesHeritable TraitsOver Production of YoungThis leads to selective transmission of heritable traitsNatural Selection in the WildStabilizing SelectionSelection against any type of change against the basic adaptive design of the speciesFitnessNatural SelectionThe differential reproductive success of types as a result of the difference between themIt favours the individuals best at reproducing not best at survivingDarwinian FitnessAverage reproductive success of one type in relation to other typesFor phonotypical difference to lead to evolution it must relate to a specific GenotypeSexual SelectionPeacocks TailMakes it more conspicuousMakes it harder to get away from predatorsEnergetically expansive to produceOverall Increases the Peacocks chance of dyingIs still adaptive because it increases chance of reproductionSexual SelectionThe component of natural selection that evolves in response to differential access to matesSelective choice can be female choice or success in combatIf an anatomical trait differs between sexes and is more pronounced during breeding season it is likely due to sexual selectionSpecies Typical Behaviour and The Comparative ApproachDifferent species like different habitats and forage differentlySpecies Typical BehaviourPhysical Form TypographyHabitat PreferenceGroup SizeSocial SystemAltruismSocial BehaviourBehaviour in which the actions of one individual affects the reproductive success of another individualCan be Divided into actions that hurt others or help others Psychology 1XX3 Notes Page 3
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