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Psych 2AA3- 1st midterm.docx

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Jennifer Ostovich

Psych 2AA3: SEPTEMBER 9 TH2013 Data collection - Case studies o Ppl who were just beginning with science ex: Piaget  Started out using his children as subjects  From that sprung a huge theory o Give you intense info about one or two specific people o Freud also famous for case studies o In-depth look at small number of people o Give us starting point then do actual studies with lots of subjects o Problems:  Just one person, can’t always generalize  Better to do research of groups of people  Involve some bias, BIAS can blind you ex: Munny • Kid raised as female because of botched circumcision • Watch by Munny • Said gender was construct • Fine as a kid, then when hits puberty realizes he’s a boy, needs hormones, realizes he was a boy and was miserable his whole life • Munny had bias that kid would be ok raised as a girl - Observational Research o Observing children leads to a lot of interesting research ideas o Not getting involved, just watching what they’re doing - Correlational Research o Often look for correlations in human behaviour o Often do survey studies, like personality tests. o Can’t give young kids survey  Can do interviews instead, using language they understand  Can ask parents about them or teachers  If you want dif perspectives on the same kids o Problem with retrospective reports  Can’t always remember what you did as a kid  Can tell unintentional lies, memory is biased - Caveat: causation o Correlation does not imply causation - Experimental Research o Random assignment -> Causation  Everything is the same between subjects except for what is manipulated  So you know what causes it o Can’t randomly assign some stuff  Example age  When you compare and find them dif, is it because they already are or because of what was manipulated in the experiment  Child abuse o Random assignment: type of tv show, assign it, see if it causes aggressiveness.  Can do random assignment in a lab setting o Can do a field experiment (playground etc)  Somewhere in the real world  Kids have no idea whats going on o Quasi experiments (in lab or field)  Random assignment not possible on at least one variable  Must be very careful with interpretation Three main designs for studying age effects: - Cross sectional o Kids of different ages o Make them do task and compare - Longitudinal o Follow someone age 2-7 as they grow - Sequential o Combines both - Each design can use any data collection method - Usually correlational or experiemental Cross Sectional - Attention span - Measure 6,9,12 yr olds - Compare averages between them. - Pros: o Quick o Cheap o Demonstrates differences - Cons: o Cohort effect o Acohort is group of people that experience the same thing at the same time o Sesame street:  1 year difference was huge in how it affected people  People who got it at age 3-4 performed better in school  Cohort effect: what age you experienced sesame street  You may find different but it’s actually not about age but types of experiences one has had. SEPTEMBER 10 TH 2013 Cross-sectional designs - Can say nothing about how dev`p occurs o Continuous or discontinuous Longitudinal designs - Problems o Cohort effect still a problem  Cross-generational problem  Longitudinal study may not be relevant for future generations o Cost, time o Practice effects  If kids come into the lab often measuring a certain thing, they can get better at the tests from doing them so much  Just getting exposed to the same type of test over and over again can appear like development but It is just practice o Attrition and selective attrition  Subjects dropping out, moving away (ATTRITION)  Problem is if they are dropping out because of reasons relating to the variable you`re studying  Galambos : longitudinal study with class of graduationg hschool students • What happens to self esteem in the yrs after hschool? • Gets them to fill out surveys about self esteem • Starts out with almost 1000s, yrs later only around 400 • drop out rate greater than 50% • Along the course of study, self esteem goes up • Maybe those with low self esteem leave the study • So really there is no change • But looked at the start and there were equal chances for those who left and those who stayed to have high or low self esteem • So she had attrition but not selective attrition - Pros o Tells us about developmental course  Better chance of learning about continuity and discontinuity  Can reveal links btw early experience and later outcomes o Eliminates some aspects of the cohort  Changes you see are across the same cohort  Changes = development, not cohort Sequential Designs - Two or more longitudinal studies at once, with people of different ages - Allow you to test if you have cohort effect or not - Can make both longitudinal and cross sectional comparisons - Eliminates problems from both types of designs - Pros o Benefits of longitudinal, less cost/time o Can compare dif cohorts are same ages  If dif-> cohort  If similar -> age effect  can compare dif cohorts patterns of development across time PSYCH 2AA3- SEPTEMBER 12 TH Behavioural Genetics - Genes and environment work together and affect one another. o Epigenetics: genes do code for behaviour but the environment can alter your genes. o Your environmental experiences can be translated into a genetic change that can be passed on to children. - Genotype and phenotype o Genotype: set of genes inherited from parents o Phenotype: observable expression of your genetic code o When japan became richer and had access to more nutrients, Japanese were becoming very tall. o Child would be half a foot taller than parents o Psychiatric disorders: can have genes that code for schizophrenia, but more likely to have schizophrenia if you are in the type of environment that make it more likely o Caspy et al  Looked at depression, in people over 20 yr span  Authors interested in both genes and environment  Serotonin transporter gene, if it is expressed in certain way have chronic low serotonin levels , more susceptible to depression  Some subjects had it some didn’t  Looked at life events  Found that having this gene did not alter people’s risk of depression if they didn’t have a lot of life events.  Alot of life events and have gene – more likely to be depressed  So gene is associated with depression but only in certain environments. o Cooper and zibec  Some rats good at learning and running mazes- bright rats  Some rats not so bright- dull rats  Breed bright and bright and dull and dull  End up with super bright and super dull  Can breed for intelligence in rats  Does this difference stay in different types of environment? • Some in normal lab setting • Some in enriched environment • Some in impoverished  Maze dull rats became brighter in enriched environment  Impoverished environment made bright rats less smart o Genes and environment work together to affect your phenotype Genes and Complex Traits - Is there a gene for attribute X? (ie. Intelligence, personality) o Polygenic (multigenic) inheritance\ o How much is due to genes how much is due to environment?  Three main methods: • Adoption studies o Similarity to adoptive vs biological siblings o Reasoning o Biological mother represents genes, adoptive is environment o Look at child, more similar to adoptive family or biological?? o Study: child more similar to biological mom that they haven’t been around o Extraversion had strong genetic component • Family studies o Compare relatedness with concordance o Reasoning o Looking at people in a family, can be nuclear family or extended o Looking for concordance rates about something o What is the likelihood if one person has schizo that another member will also have it? o Goes up with how much percent of genetic code is shared. • Twin studies o Concordance rate higher for MZ than DZ o Caveat:  Similarity of environment  Prenatally, share same placenta -> can have effect on development  Postnatally: dressed the same, grow up same place, etc… o DZ twins, parents might emphasize differences o Control for rearing environment by studying MZ twins reared together and reared apart  MZT vs MZAdifferences?  Not that different  Raised apart didn’t spend more than 5 months together  Still extremely similar  Bouchard et al. 1990  Environment may have been similar for MZAthan expected  From birth on we are born with a temperament, affects the personality of parents  Easy babies -> warm, engaging parents  Difficult babies -> elicit different reaction from parents  So could have similar parenting styles  And other things about who they are, that create a certain rearing environment Neurodevelopment - Parents eager to encourage their children’s neurodevelopment o Brain stimulation products  Belief that if you super stimulate babies brains you will create a super smart child.  No evidence that this stuff works  Mozart effect(Rauscher et al) • Listening to Mozart makes you smarter • Made students listen to Mozart then do an iq test • They did do better on iq test, but after a small period of time it wore off. • Could not be replicated • Got into media, twisted, if you listen to Mozart as a baby makes you smart permanently - Nature and nurture work together here o Experience isn’t everything - Brain is the fastest organ to reach adult size o By birth 30% of adult weight, age 2 70%, age 6 90% rd - The brain growth spurt( beginning of 3 trimester – age 2) o More than triples in size, grows about 1.7 g per day o Neurons are developing connections, communicate o Structure, brain is developing cerebral cortex - Communication o Neurons are in place at birth o There is some neurogeneration- hippocampus o When we’re born don’t have many synapses o During childhood have myelination of axons  Insulates and protects signal  Increases efficiency  Some people don’t develop good myelination, depends on nutrition  Keep making myelin into late childhood o Synaptogenesis  Need synapses for neurons to communicate  Born with few synapses developed  Required post natal experience to develop  So many develop, have too many, engage in synaptic pruning, continues throughout childhood and teen years  Lose about 40% of synapses we create in those first years of life - Structure o Cerebral cortex o Long developmental course o Growth in spurts, associated with developmental events st  Auditory and visual cortices in 1 yr of life ( see rapid development in sensory perception and mobility)  Language areas, around age 2  Frontal lobes appear to continue and grow into your 20s until you’re around 30 ( planning, self-regulation, impulse control etc) • Age 10- 12, spurt in frontal lobe, improved logic and planning abilities Experience - There may be some sensitive periods where experience is especially important - Animal studies o Require visual stimulation th o If you put them in a dark room for 3 or 4 days, at about 4 week of development, creat
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