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Midterm 2 Notes

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Richard B Day

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Midterm 2 – Textbook Notes Chapter 13 – Summary Phenomenological Perspective: implies that the present moment of experience is all that matters - Individuals have free will - Only way to understand another person is to understand their constructs and experiences of the world Extentianlism: breaks down experience into experience of the external world, social experience, and introspective experience-of-experiencing - Claims that there is no meaning of existence besides what each person makes it out to be - Philosophers of the theory (Satre) concluded that not accepting this lack of meaning in the world = living in bad faith Optimism Humanism: based on the existential model that people are basically good and are inherently motivated to strive towards self-actualization (Rogers and Maslow) - Face experience directly = fully-functioning person - Need to receive unconditional positive regard - New version of Maslow’s hierarchy placed parenthood at the top Personal Constructs: theory suggests that each person’s experience of the world is based upon a set of personal constructs (unique to that particular individual) - Resemble scientific paradigms Flow: the best state that one can experience is one in which challenges and capabilities are balanced, attention is focused, and time passes quickly (Csikzentmihalyi) Hardiness: people should embrace life’s challenges instead of looking for ways to run and avoid the stresses that they can bring on (Maddi) Self-Determination Theory: theorizes that happiness can be achieved through the means of hedonism (seeking pleasure and comfort) or eudemonism (seeking to fulfil one’s potential) - Deci and Ryan - Solely hedonic route = self-defeating o People have universal and fundamental needs that are much better satisfied through intrinsic goals (meaningful in themselves) than extrinsic goals (merely means to an end) Positive Psychology: focus on the traits and psychological processes that promote well-being and give life meaning - Attempts to categorize universal human virtues (justice, humanity, temperance, wisdom, transcendence, courage – less universal) Chapter 15 Summary Behaviourism: suggests that all behaviour is formulated by the means of rewards or punishments whether in the past or present environments of people - Empiricism: a belief that all knowledge comes from experience - Associationism: a belief that paired stimuli will be experienced as one - Hedonism: the belief that the goal in
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