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Midterm

Quicknotes - Midterm 1

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2TT3
Professor
Brett Beston

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PSYCH 2TT3 2013 Quicknotes Introduction  Eg/ Memory in Flies – flies in contraption lined with electric coils that shock feet; chemical scent is released – learn to associate scent with experience (shock); given option to go through 2 tubes – one has scent, other has none o 10 training sessions without interval between  no LT memory o Rest interval (15 minutes) between training is necessary to form LT memory o 1 training session when Kreb gene inserted into fly  formed association after 1 trial o Kreb gene – in humans, transfers ST memory to LT memory; acts as “switch” o If Kreb gene can be targeted with a drug to “move switch closer to on” – can have better memory  Eg/ Migratory patterns in birds and plane collisions – loss of >400 aircrafts since 1950, >100 human lives since 1995, >$1.2 billion; 800 bird strike accidents/year; airports control teams do research for reducing bird collision (eg/ release predatory birds); research in Israel has reduced damage by ~85%, saved >$400 million; all pilots required to take 6 month course to reduce aircraft-bird collision, study migration of birds Lecture 1 – Chapter 3: Proximate and Ultimate Factors  Ethology – study of animal behaviour o Determine what before describing why  Action Patterns – complex behaviours that are stereotyped (repeated the same way and carried to completion every time) o Beewolf – find its nest by circling next in an ever-widening circle before flying away to hunt (Action pattern); Niko Tinberg would remove landmarks and beewolf would be disoriented when it returns  Proximate (what, how; mechanism) – what is responsible for producing behaviour or triggers a change in behaviour? o Answers questions regarding a) immediate stimuli b) development o Close to; beside; internal changes; hormones  Ultimate (why; function) – what is the function of a behaviour and how does it affect the animal in the environment? o Answers questions regarding a) survival function b) evolutionary history  Eg/ Plumage Color in Finches o Proximate  red coloration in males due to carotenoid pigments ingested in food; males seek out carotenoid rich foods  Positive relationship between father and son plumage score  Between-Pop Variability – caused by differential availability of carotenoid-rich foods  Within-Pop Variability – difference in foraging; males seek carotenoid-rich, females maximize calories per unit time o Ultimate  adaptive significance of red plumage; positive correlation between male mating success and red-color intensity  Colorful males attract mates 2-3x faster  Benefits to redder-plumage 1. Recovery from infection – colorful males recover quicker from disease; more disease among less colorful o Microplasma gallicepticum – bacterial pathogen; causes eye swelling o Measured how fast bird recovered  more red plumage = less signs of infection 2. Feeding Young – colorful males more likely to return to feed young 3. Offspring Coloration – offspring will likely seek out carotenoid-rich foods and have red plumage; offspring will have higher fitness (than non-colored males) o Plumage Variation due to proximate and ultimate causes  Males actively seek out carotenoid-rich foods (explains within-population variability; females less colorful)  Males who can afford seeking color instead of energy are probably of better quality  Females estimate male quality based on red color  Hormones (proximal causation) o Eg/ Belding Ground Squirrels – males reach 2 months and leave burrow where born due to increase in testosterone o Animals have three interactive systems  Input – sensory systems  Central Processor – integrators; process sensory information; central nervous system  Output – effectors; (eg/ muscles move when stimulated) o Eg/ Aggression in males – testosterone surges increase likelihood of aggression; feedback loop = animal wins fightinc testosteronemore likely to win fight (higher testosterone, low stress) o Eg/ Males with lower testosterone levels spend more time with young  Castrated males and new fathers show lower testosterone levels than non-fathers for nearly 5 years  Males with reduced T are more likely to have children  Even greater for those who cared for children for at least 3 hours  Low T  more likely to be monogamous and care for children o Eg/ Rat Spatial Memory  stress affects memory abilities; hormones play specific role in memory  Rats put into dark murky water tank; swim to find hidden platform  Subsequent trials in maze allows rat to find platform more – uses landmarks to navigate water  Increase stress with shock – releases corticosterone (stress hormone)  30 minutes before trial – impaired memory for location of platform; corticosterone effects displayed 30 minutes after stress is induced  2 minutes and 4 hours before trial – time too short/long for corticosterone effects to show  Treat with metyrapon (blocks corticosterone) – shocked mouse had no memory impairment  Corticosterone associated with spatial memory task o Eg/ Honey Bees Spatial Learning  neurological example  Information retrieval from environment is critical  Spatial learning associated with mushroom bodies (cluster of small neurons; analogous to hippocampus)  Foragers have larger (14.8 %) than nursing bees  development can be activated by premature foraging 1 PSYCH 2TT3 2013 Lecture 2 – Chapter 1; Principles of Animal Behaviour  Animal Behaviour – self generated movement of either a body part of whole body in animals  Major components of behaviour (4 F’s + others) 1. Feeding 2. Fleeting Predators 3. Fighting 4. Sex 5. Sleep (sometimes) 6. Social Interaction (Communication) (sometimes)  Eg/ Quando Omni Flunkus Moritati – when all else fails play dead; possums play dead when feel threatened  Eg/ Hognose Snake – death dance before attacking prey; retreats in disgust at the smell of rotting flesh  Eg/ Jumping spider – elaborate dance for mate attraction Change Behaviour – two mechanisms 1. Evolution (across generations) – a process of change in the proportion of heritable traits within a population spread over many generations  Natural selection – the process whereby traits that confer the highest relative reproductive success can be passed down across generations and increase in frequency over many generations o A mechanism for evolution; proposed by Darwin o 3 requires principles  Variation – differences in traits in individuals; advantageous traits  Fitness Consequences – ability to mate more or live longer; reproductive success  Heritability – trait passed down to offspring  Eg/ Galapagos Finches – beak size of medium ground finches (G. fortis) o In dry years – large seeds  favoured finches with large beaks  1977-1978 drought (dry) killed 80% of finches; large beaks more likely to survive o In wet years – small seeds  favoured finches with small beaks  Eg/ Crickets – males rub smooth wing on scraper wing to produce sound that attracts female mate and parasites (trade-off between parasites and mating) o Parasites found on 3 main islands – Kauai, Oahu and Hawaii  largest parasitism on Kauai (80% have parasites) o Kauai crickets have no scraper – cannot make sound to attract parasite; also cannot attract mate  Adopted mating strategies – remain close to males that do sing o Males typically are repelled by sound of species own song; do not sing around other males to maximize own mating probabilities o Females are choosey – can become an advantage to not be so choosey (on Kauai) 2. Learning (within lifetime) – ability to acquire a neuronal representation of new information that can be used to determine subsequent behaviour; evolved by natural selection, learning abilities are products of evolution  Eg/ Birds – females learning that male with red coloration produce less offspring would affect mate preference  Eg/ Grasshopper – learn to eat balanced diet (certain plate species and parts provide different nutrients) o Compare growth rate in grasshoppers that could or could not learn association between diets o Paired odors (carol and comerin) and cue cards (brown and green) with food (optimal and poor diet) o Learning Treatment – allows to learn to prefer balanced over deficient diet  pick up on cuesquickly; by day 4, goes directly to balanced diet dish  Allows 20% higher growth rate  growth rate reflects reproductive success o Random Treatment – faced changing environment making learning impossible  pick up on some cues; samples both dishes before going to balanced diet dish (spends 90% of time at balanced dish with some discrepancies)  Social Learning (Cultural Transmission) – learning from others o Eg/ Rats – unfamiliar food may be nutritious, or spoiled/poison – learning through eating is risky; through others is safe  Demonstrator Group – taken to a room and fed on food with cocoa or cinnamon flavor  Observer Group – each interact with one demonstrator for 15 min after they had eaten (but did not see them eat)  Observers influences by demonstrators – eat food demonstrator ate; could smell food on demonstrator and learned that it was safe o Eg/ Octopus – unskilled octopus unable to open jar with crab inside until after it watched a skilled octopus open jar  Individual vs. Social Learning o Information learned by an individual is lost when individual dies o Information that is learned from others can remain in population for generations Lecture 3 – Chapter 2; The Evolution of Behaviour  Evolution – a change over time of the proportions of individual organisms differing genetically in one of more traits Artificial Selection  Fitness – the success of an individual in reproducing; number of offspring produces in the lifetime of an organism  Artificial Selection – the process by which humans selectively choose and breed with some preferred characteristics o Requires heritability, variation and fitness consequences  Eg/ Sheep Dogs – bred for herding; turning ancestral behaviour of tracking into something useful; dogs derived from wolves dated back to 10 kya  Eg/ Teacup Poodles – only allows smallest poodles to breed; smaller poodles are more successful at reproducing, have higher fitness  Eg/ Corn (stalk-like plant) derived from Teosinte (shrub-like plant)  Eg/ Fruit Flies and Phototaxis – 15 level maze; T unction with option to turn toward light (1) or dark (0); score between 1-16 2 PSYCH 2TT3 2013 o Took flies that show extremes (only light, only dark) and bred them o Initially no preference toward dark or light; breeding shifted population behavioural traits o Traits return to no preference when selective pressure is removed  Eg/ Fruit Fly Aggression – brawl over mates and territory; bred aggressive fruit flies to see fighting frequency o Neutral (no artificial selection) – fight ~20% of time o Selected aggressive traits – after 10 generations fight 45-60% of time; 20 generations fight 80% of time Natural vs. Artificial Selection  The variation in reproductive success (fitness) of individuals is determined by o Artificial – humans who decide which individuals reproduce o Natural – survival, mate choice etc  Both require heritable individual variation that corresponds to variation in fitness Fitness  Fitness – lifetime reproductive success; product of reproductive rate and length of reproductive time  Higher fitness advantage of trait, the less generations it takes for the entire population to have that trait  Eg/ Female Red Deer (Isle of Run; Scotland) – most females do not have surviving offspring (35% die); if elk reaches age 1, likely to survive to adulthood  Eg/ Male Red Deer – males fight (and are killed); 50% of males do not produce any offspring  Fitness Consequences – the change in an individuals reproductive success associated with what behaviour that individual displays o Traits influence survival and reproduction; large variation in fitness among individuals o Even small different in fitness (1%) can have strong effects on evolution Variation and Heritability  Large variation among individuals; determined by genetic and environmental factors  Genetic Variance – average amount of variation among genotypes o Needed for some basic mechanisms of evolutionary change to operate o Three primary sources 1) Mutations - caused by inaccurately copied DNA, or external influences (eg/ radioactivity, poisons etc)  The only heritable mutations affect large-scale evolution (mutations in reproductive cells; eggand sperm) 2) Migration – any movement of genes from one population to another 3) Sex – can introduce new combinations into population o Polygenic variation caused by several or many loci  Environmental Variance – average amount of variance among individuals within the same genotype  Phenotypic Variance = genetic variance + genotypic variance o VP= VG+ V E  Broad Sense Heritability h2B = VG/ VP = V G( V G V E  Narrow Sense Heritability h2N = VA/ VP where V G V +AV +IV D o Additive Variance (VA)– depends on the magnitude of additive effects of alleles and allele frequency o Genetic Variance (VG)– consists of additive and non-additive components (dominance and gene interactions)  Eg/ Beak Size – 0.9; NSH = slope of regression (y=bx) Selection Differential  Selection Differential, S – the difference between the mean trait of selected parents and the population mean; maximal amount can expect natural selection to change approach scores o S = (bar)S (bar)  Z(bar)Smean parental phenotype (selected for)  Z(bar) average in population  Reponses to selection – a change in the mean character state of one generation as a result of selection in the previous generation o Enabled by VA(responsible for degree of similarity between parents and offspring) o R = (bar)R ZP  Z(bar)R mean offspring score (actual mean when new generation is bred)  ZP= mean parental phenotype  same as Z (bar)S  Narrow Sense Heritability h2N = R/S  Eg/ Heritability is High – mean score is 10; those above 12 are allowed to breed; S = 13 – 10 = 3 R = 13 – 10 = 3 h N 3/3 = 1  Eg/ Heritability is low – line of best fit is flatter  Eg/ Heritability in Fruit Flies (Phototaxis) 3 PSYCH 2TT3 2013 o Mean Parental Score, Z(bar) P 9 o Mean of Selected Parents, (bar)S 12 o Mean Offspring Score, Z(bar)R 9.27 o S = 3, R = 0.27 o h N = 0.09 Genetics and Genes  Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) – a set of genes that control polygenic traits o Mapping – inheritance of a genetic marker is associated with inheritance of a particular trait  marker must be linked to trait  Eg/ QTL for Emotionality in Mice – examined fear in mice by measuring open-field behaviour; place in large, open, well-lit environment o Mice bred for i) high open-field activity b) low open field activity  placed in mazes and measured fear by level of activity and defecation rates  Fear = high defecation, low activity  both traits heritable (and negatively correlated) o Dissected mice and extracted spleen DNA of fearful mice o Identified 2 QTLs for fear on mouse chromosomes 1 and 12  Certain levels of emotions (anxiety, depression, low) can be adaptive o Eg/ Guppies risk-taking tendencies; low risk survives longer; low anxiety = more likely high risk = lower chance of survival  DNA Microarrays –contains spots (each are numerous copies of single-stranded DNA representing a gene); can see activity of certain genes and identify genes affecting particular behaviours o Collect mRNA from samples, transcribe to cDNA, mark with distinct fluorescent label  Eg/ Bees – appears that young bees are nurses and old bees are foragers – but age is not a distribution factor; behaviours are taken on o Analysis of ~550 of ~14000 genes; DNA Microarray ~2000 of 5500 genes showed distinct expression in nurses and foragers  Bees express different genes depending on their role o Colony needs affect the transition from nurse to forager – if bees are added to colony, residents assess bee and adjust own behaviour accordingly  Add young bee – resident beeschange behaviour and prematurely begin to forage (new bees = nurses)  Add old bee – resident bees change behaviour and forage less (new bees = foragers) o Brain mRNA profiles predicted behaviour of 95% of bees  use Principle Component Analysis (PCA) Lecture 4 – Chapter 2; The Evolution of Behaviour Sociobiology and Selfish Genes  Selfish Gene Approach (Ethology) – the sociobiological notion that genes associated with behaviour are the units upon which natural selection acts; natural selection favours genes that increase the expected relative reproductive success of their bearers  Eg/ Guppies Antipredatory Behaviour – low-/high-predation pools; separated by waterfall; share ancestral data; Trinidad and Tobago Pools Antipredatory Behaviour Color # of Offspring Size of Offspring Reproductive Age High Predation More Schooling – dilutes risk, great Drab Many Small Early - Downstream vigilance, group confusion; school Predator can eat all size guppies  females - Pikes and pike ciclids;size increases with predation invest in
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