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Study Guide

[PSYCH 1X03] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (37 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Study Guide
Final

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McMaster
PSYCH 1X03
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Monday, September 26, 2016
Instrumental Conditioning
Introduction
-we learn the effects of behaviour through operant conditioning
-Thorndike’s experiments reveal the effects of action
-the cat started to engage in behaviours that encourage reinforcer
-animals don’t have an ‘aha’ moment
-the probability of the behaviour increased
-instrumental conditioning is learning between voluntary behaviour and its
consequences
-SD - the relationship is valid, Sdelta- the relationship is not valid
-SD sets the occasion for instrumental conditioning
-training yourself to study is just a matter of applying instrumental conditioning
set the conditions that will promote this behaviour by setting a Sd
-a red lamp turns on specifically when you study
-once you get more studying done, give yourself a bigger reward
-how do superstitious behaviours form?
Shaping
-shaping forms a lot of everyday behaviours
-successive approximation
-primary reinforcers satisfy biological need
-secondary reinforcers don’t directly satisfy biological needs —> established through
classical conditioning
-feedback to promote efficient energy use
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Monday, September 26, 2016
Nature vs. Nurture
-Watson
psychology should study only external behaviours
don’t rely on motivation and internal thoughts
hardcore behaviourists
natural talent does have some role
Observational Learning
-we don’t necessarily have to go through a learning trial yourself
-biological predisposition to learn through modelling behaviours
-watching others results in cultural transmission
-
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