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[PSYCH 1X03] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (128 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Study Guide
Final

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McMaster
PSYCH 1X03
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 2: Classical Conditioning
oBasic learning processes are adaptive and flexible to automatically guide behaviour.
oExploring how the elements of classical conditioning apply in the real world, as we
consider how learning can interact with physiology of drug effects
oLearning: relatively enduring change in behavior due to experience
How we can behave appropriately in the future to predict the outcome
oClassical conditioning applies to us every single day
Why are drug addicts more likely to over from a drug in an unfamiliar environment?
A: the cues signalling the compensatory response are absent
Learning and drug effects:
How do basic learning processes interact with drug effects?
Behaviorism: (we learn from experience)
Ivan Pavlov
Reflexive responses associate with cues
“the first sure step to a new line of investigation” (Pavlov)
Watson:
Interested in looking at prediction and control of behaviour
Stated that psychology has to look at things that can be observably
measured
Skinner:
Prediction and control of behaviour
Instrumental conditioning
2 main types of learning:
1. Non associative learning:
a. Info about one external stimulus
b. Habituation: decrease in behavioral responding to a repeated stimulus
c. Ex: Feeling the clothes on your body at first when its on, but over the day your
body starts to ignore this
d. Changing a response to a single stimulus
e. Sensitization: increase in behavioural responding to a repeated stimulus
f. EX: if you enjoy watching scary movies, you will have an increase in behavioural
responding as you watch scarier movies (heightened sense of awareness /
heightened sense of fear response)
2. Associative learning:
a. How two or more pieces of info are related
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b. Classical conditioning: learn that two stimuli go together
c. Operant conditioning: learning that a behaviour leads to a particular outcome
c.i. Explicitly, voluntarily engaging in a behaviour that leads to a particular
outcome
c.ii. Ex: putting money into a vending machine where outcome = food
d. Can work in both rewarding and inverse conditions
The brain changes during learning:
oLong-term potentiation (LTP): the strengthening of synaptic connections between
neurons
Case study 1: Why were relapse rates so low in retuning Vietnam war Vets?
Huge rate of heroin addiction among U.S soldiers (about 20%) General Drug addiction
rate in America = 0.3%
What is going to happen when these soldiers return from Vietnam back into the states
when they are heroin addicts?
Had to go through mandatory drug testing and if found to be a drug addict, had to go
through a mandatory detox
One of the big challenges of drug addiction: even when going through detox, it is still
very likely you will go back to the drug addiction again (desire / craving)
However, relapse rate for the soldiers was only 5 % (compared to the general 20% of
relapse in the states)
Case study 2: What causes enigmatic opiate overdose?
Cases where a person has a long history of taken heroin (As a drug abuser or even in a
hospital setting) and genuinely what you find is the longer you take the drug, the more
you will have to take to get the same effect (DRUG TOLERANCE)
Enigmatic opiate overdose: where a person is taking an amount of drug they should be
find with, based on their drug history, but instead overdose
oTheoretically everything should be fine but the person has overdosed..why??
Learning allows for homeostasis:
Homeostasis: allowing our body to stay at a neutral state
oEX: entering conditions that are very cold: your body will start doing procedures
so your body can compensate its temperature (why you start shivering)
oWay that homeostasis works = through classical conditioning
A case study of taste conditioning:
The office (show)
US: the mint
UR: salivation (from mint)
CS: Computer sounds
CR: Salivation (from sound of computer)
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